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comprehensive plan 

and 
finding of no significant impact 

September 1981 



GOVT. DOCUMENTS 
DEPOSITORY ITEKS 

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CLEMSON 




NATIONAL HISTORIC TRAIL / ILLINOIS IOWA NEBRASKA WYOMING UTAH 




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comprehensive plan and finding of no significant impact 



MORMON PIONEER NATIONAL HISTORIC TRAIL 
ILLINOIS-IOWA-NEBRASKA-WYOMING-UTAH 




As the nation's principal conservation agency, the Department of 
the Interior has basic responsibilities to protect and conserve our 
land and water, energy and minerals, fish and wildlife, parks and 
recreation areas, and to ensure the wise use of all these resources. 
The department also has major responsibility for American Indian 
reservation communities and for people who live in island territories 
under U.S. administration. 



ROCKY MOUNTAIN REGION, NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 
United States Department of the Interior 



SUMMARY 



The Act The National Trails System Act was amended November 10, 

1978, to add the Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail to 
the system. The Act requires this comprehensive plan for 
the trail's management and use be provided to the 
Congress by October I, 1981. 

The plan elements are: 

- Identification of specific objectives and practices to be 
observed for the management and use of the Trail. 

- Identification of all significant natural, historical and 
cultural resources to be preserved. 

- Details of cooperative agreements to be consummated 
with State and local government agencies or private 
interests. 

- The process to be followed to implement the marking 
requirements established in Section 7(c) of the Act. 

Planning The Advisory Council, in coordination with Federal, State 

and local officials and interested persons, has provided 
recommendations and guidance to the Secretary of the 
Interior for the preparation of this plan. 

Designation Congress authorized and designated the 1300-mile trail 

extending from Nauvoo, Illinois to Salt Lake City, Utah 
through the states of Iowa, Nebraska and Wyoming. This 
officially designated trail is administered by the Secretary 
of the Interior. The Trail is to be managed to preserve 
open space environment and to provide dispersed 
recreational opportunities and historical interpretation. 

Public Use Public use will be associated with those activities that can 

result in the understanding and reenactment of the first 
Mormon Pioneer trek of 1846-1847. 

Plans The plan establishes six Initial Protection Segments on 

Actions Federally-administered lands as meeting the criteria 

Federal established in the plan. The Bureau of Land Management 

administers four components in Wyoming on the Rawlins, 
Lander, and Rock Springs Resource Areas. The Fish and 
Wildlife Service one segment at the Seedskadee National 
Wildlife Refuge and the National Park Service manages one 
segment at the Fort Laramie National Historic Site. 

Non-Federal The plan recommends that 75 other non-Federal areas be 
subsequently certified by the Secretary of the Interior as 
Certified Protected Segments . These lands will enter 



the system upon application from involved State, local 
Governmental agencies or private interests. 

Resources Eight important cultural and natural areas related to 

either the pioneer trek or later significant events are 
located on Federal lands within the initial protected 
segments and have been inventoried and are identified in 
the plan. The analysis and management principles for 
their preservation are outlined in the Trail Management 
section and will be in accord with Section 106 procedures 
or within Federal authority and regulations of the 
Secretary of the Interior. 

Seventeen cooperative agreements are required to 
implement the elements of the plan. A listing of Federal 
and State agencies and private interest organizations and 
their responsibilities is shown in the Cooperative 
Agreement section. 

Marking The marking program has identified 1,624 highway miles in 

five states which will be marked for trail purposes. The 
plan calls for: (1) initial designation and marking of a 
1 385-mile Auto Trail Route involving 982 miles of U.S. 
highway routes and 403 miles of State routes; (2) the 
marking and interpretation of an additional 239-mile 
secondary connecting routes along eleven routes; and (3) 
withdrawal of 47 miles of Federal trail miles in 5 locations 
within the trail right-of-way to serve as Horse and Foot 
Trails so as to provide reenactment of trail pursuits. 

Costs The estimated annual operating cost to ^minister and 

service the Advisory Council function will be $20,000 
yearly. Development of the Trail's marking program and 
preparation of segment management plans will be through 
existing Federal, State, and local agencies' funding 
programs with possible cost sharing and planning 
assistance from the National Park Service or other Federal 
agencies. 

Acquisition Three parcels of property involving 560 acres are 

necessary for full trail utilization. Acquisition will be by 
donation, exchange, or fee purchase with donated funds 
on a willing seller-willing buyer basis by the Bureau or 
Land Management. 

Definitions See page 17. 



CONTENTS 



PART 1 - COMPREHENSIVE PLAN 



INTRODUCTION 

Background of Legislation and Study / 3 
Legislative Constraints / 5 
Historic Overview / 10 

OBJECTIVES AND PRACTICES 

Framework and Strategies / 18 
Management Objectives / 21 
Management Practices / 23 

TRAIL MANAGEMENT 

Administration and Implementation / 28 
Decisions or Actions / 29 

SIGNIFICANT RESOURCES 
Establishment / 33 
Initial Protection Segments / 36 
Potential Certified Protection Segments / 68 

MARKING PROCESS 

Introduction / 92 
Marking Program / 94 

COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS AND MEMORANDUM OF 
UNDERSTANDING 

Introduction / 104 

Sample / 109 

PART II - FINDING OF NO SIGNIFICANT IMPACT 

Finding of No Significant Impact / 113 
Environmental Assessment / 116 

PART III - APPENDIXES 

A Legislation / 123 

B Advisory Council Charter / 137 

C National Register of Historic Places / 139 

D Supplemental Criteria / 140 

E Sample Application Format / 142 

F Segment Management Plan Outline / 144 

G Bibliography / 146 

H Map References / 148 



TABLES 

I Land Ownership / 14 

II Land Use Patterns / 15 

III Representative Changes in Use (1975-1980) / 15 

IV Guidelines for Trail Segment Selection / 35 

V Summary of Auto Routes / 103 

VI Details of Agreements or Memoranda / 105-108 



GRAPHICS 

National Scenic and Historic Trails System / 
Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail / 12 
Trail Elevation and Climatic Data / 13 
Initial Protection Segments - Wyoming / 138 
Vicinity Maps / 40-65 
Designated Auto Routes / 96-102 




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Existing Trails 
Mormon Pioneer Trail 



NATIONAL TRAILS SYSTEM 

National Scenic and National Historic Trails 

MORMON PIONEER TRAIL STUDY 



INTRODUCTION 



BACKGROUND OF LEGISLATION AND STUDY 

This comprehensive plan was prepared in compliance with the National 
Trails System Act (the Act) of October 2, 1968 (16 U.S.C. 1241 et. 

seq . ). That Act established policies and procedures for a nationwide 
system of national scenic and recreation trails and was amended (Public 
Law 95-265, November 10, 1978) to include a category of national historic 
trails (see National Trail System Map). That amendment also established 
the Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail (see Appendix A 
Legislation). The finding of no significant impact addresses the Trail's 
alternatives and consequences. 

This action by the Congress was the result of "The Mormon Trail--A 
Study Report" completed by the Heritage Conservation and Recreation 
Service (HCRS) in June 1978. That study had the active assistance of a 
number of Federal, State and local agencies, the Church of Jesus Christ 
of Latter-Day Saints, the Mormon Pioneer Trail Foundation, historical 
societies, and interested individuals. The study was conducted for scenic 
trail feasibility and found that a continuous hiking trail along the original 
Mormon emigration route would be neither desirable nor practical because 
man's subsequent uses have preempted extensive segments of the route. 
Accordingly, although the Congress designated the entire original route 
as a national historic trail, the Act established only Federally-owned lands 
having significant potential for public use combined with historic interest, 
interpretation, and appreciation to be established as Initial Protection 
Segments of the Trail. Since the route is designated Mormon Pioneer 
National Historic Trail (emphasis added), this plan concentrates on the 
first Mormon emigration effort in 1846-47. 



The Trail Today 

A brief description of the Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail through 
each state is as follows. More detailed descriptions of important 
resources are found in the Significant Resources part of the plan. 

Illinois Alignment 

The historic town of Nauvoo is in Hancock County--Congressional District 
#19. Many of the dwellings erected by the Mormons still exist and have 
been or are being restored. A Mormon enterprise, Nauvoo Restoration, 
Inc., has an impressive visitor center. Nauvoo Landing was the original 
"jumping-off" place for the Mormon pioneers. Nauvoo State Park lies 
adjacent to it. The Mississippi River is a major natural feature at the 
beginning of the trail. See Appendix Map 1. 



Iowa Alignment 

In Iowa, the Trail passes through Lee and Van Buren 
Counties—Congressional District #1 ; Davis and Appanoose 

Counties — Congressional District #4; and Wayne, Decatur, Clarke, Union, 
Adair, Cass, and Pottawattamie Counties — Congressional District #5. The 
terrain includes rolling hills, river bottoms such as those of the Des 
Moines and Missouri Rivers, wooded areas and level lands. Croplands 
and highways have removed all but a few traces of the original Mormon 
trail, such as the town of Garden Grove started by the first pioneers. 
At several points, State and private interests have erected memorials and 
markers to commemorate the emigration. Council Bluffs became the later, 
principal emigrant departure point on the trail. 



Nebraska Alignment 

Through Nebraska, the Trail route is in Dodge and Colfax 
Counties — Congressional District #1 ; Douglas County— Congressional 
District #2; and Platte, Nance, Merrick, Hall, Buffalo, Dawson, Lincoln, 
Keith, Garden, Morrill and Scotts Bluff Counties — Congressional District 
#3. The route traverses the river valleys and adjacent lands of the 
Loup, Platte and North Platte Rivers. Particularly in the eastern part, 
the level lands were often monotonous to the pioneers and received 
considerable comment in their diaries. The eroded range of sand hills in 
the west and the impressive landmarks of Indian Lookout Point and 
Ancient Ruins Bluff offered relief from the level landscape. Other noted 
landmarks that are more closely related to the Oregon Trail include 
Courthouse Rock, Chimney Rock and Scotts Bluff. Again, most of the 
eastern segment has urban development, intensive farming, highway and 
railroad systems that have obliterated the Trail. Winter Quarters is now 
Florence, Nebraska, where the Mormon influence can still be seen. In 
the west, there are places where the route traverses rolling rangeland 
that appears today much as it did in pioneer times. 



Wyoming Alignment 

In Wyoming, the trail route is found in Goshen, Platte, Converse, 
Natrona, Fremont, Sublette, Sweetwater and Uinta Counties—all 
Congressional District #1. The Trail crosses to the south side of the 
North Platte River and almost immediately crosses a corner of Fort 
Laramie National Historic Site. From there to Fort Bridger, it follows the 
same route as the Oregon National Historic Trail. The topography is 
generally rough and broken uplands. Wagon ruts etched several feet in 
sandstone are found near Guernsey. In the eastern section, the 
vegetation is principally sagebrush and juniper, and the area is largely 
roadless. The Trail recrosses the North Platte River near Casper and 
traverses a crosscountry route over hilly rangeland to Independence 
Rock. This landscape is largely as it was during emigrant travel. The 
Trail then funnels westward along the Sweetwater River. Rolling hills 
and grasslands with distant mountain vistas provide better interest and 
variety. At South Pass, the Trail crosses the Continental Divide and 
enters the Pacific slope region. From here, it follows broken 



sagebrush—covered tablelands to Fort Bridger. The route then continues 
westerly over the Bear River Divide and exits the State southwest of 
Evanston. 



Utah Alignment 

In Utah, the Trail is in Summit and Morgan counties — Congressional 
District #1 ; and in Salt Lake County — Congressional District #2. The 
route follows beside Interstate Route 80 down Echo Canyon, then crosses 
the Weber River and runs westerly crossing various hollows, canyons and 
summits of the Wasatch Mountains. It emerges from Emigration Canyon 
and terminates at the "This Is The Place Monument" in Pioneer Trails 
State Park on the eastern edge of Salt Lake City. Each of the pioneer 
campsites through the Wasatch range has been marked by the State or by 
private interests. 

In summary, the pioneer route includes 1 mile in Illinois, 268 miles in 
Iowa, 494 miles in Nebraska, 466 miles in Wyoming, and 71 miles in Utah 
for a total of 1,300 miles. 

This plan for management and use of the trail is pursuant to Section 5(f) 
of the Act. Preparation was done with the full consultation of the 
affected Federal land-managing agencies, the Governors of the affected 
states, and the Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail Advisory Council. 

The comprehensive plan includes: 

1 . Specific objectives and practices to be observed in the management of 
the Trail . 

2. Identification of all significant natural, historical, and cultural 
resources to be preserved. 

3. The process to be followed by the Secretary of the Interior to 
implement the marking requirements established in Section 7(c) of this 
Act. 

4. Details of any cooperative agreements to be consummated with State 
and local Government agencies or private interests. 

This plan is an extension of the Mormon Trail Study and develops in 
succinct language the framework and strategies for resource management, 
interpretation, and area development at a level of detail that facilitates 
implementation of the proposed actions. The plan includes requirements 
necessary to ensure compliance with all relevant legislation, management 
policies and management procedures. 



LEGISLATIVE CONSTRAINTS 

The plan is in accord with legislation established to guide Federal 
agencies such as the National Park Service, the Bureau of Land 
Management, and similar Federal agencies having an interest in managing 



the Trail. The plan also considers State legislation established to guide 
appropriate State and local entities. The following is a synopsis of the 
Act's and other legislative requirements for use in administering the 
Trail. 



National Trails System Act 

1. The National Trails System Act, as amended, established the Mormon 
Pioneer National Historic Trail. Maps designating the Trail are on file 
and available for public inspection in the Office of the Director, National 
Park Service. According to the Act, the Trail is administered by the 
Secretary of the Interior (the Secretary) (Sec. 5(a)(4)). The National 
Park Service is the lead agency responsible for preparing and submitting 
this comprehensive plan for the management and use of the Trail to the 
Secretary. Preservation of, access to, travel within, and enjoyment and 
appreciation of the historic resources are recognized as high priority 
public uses (Sec. 2(a). 

2. Only those Federally-owned lands meeting national historic trail 
criteria as given in Sec. 5(b)(11) of the Act and subsequent criteria 
given in this plan are established as Initial Protection Segments of the 
Trail. The Secretary, through a designated coordinating agency, will 
subsequently certify non-Federal lands meeting the above criteria as 
Certified Protection Segments of the Trail upon application from State, 
local or private interests. The applicants must agree to administer the 
Certified Protected Segment without expense to the United States 
(Sec. 3(c)). 

3. The Secretary, through the coordinating Federal agency, will consult 
with the Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail Advisory Council on 
matters concerning the Trail, including selection of rights-of-way, 
markers, and administration (Sec. 5(d)) (see Charter in Appendix B). 

4. Connecting or side trails that are located across lands administered 
by State or local agencies must be administered by such agencies and 
must provide additional points of public access to the Trail in order to be 
established or designated and marked as segments of the Trail (Sec. 6). 

5. Rights-of-way selected for the Trail are in accord with Sec. 7(a) 
and will be published in the Federal Register. The rights-of-way: 

a. Fully consider minimizing adverse effects on adjacent landowner 
or user. 

b. Harmonize with and complement established land use plans 
within and adjacent to the Trail. 

c. Will be administered by cooperative agreements between the 
landowner and the Secretary through the administering Federal 
agency for segments crossing non-Federal lands. 

6. The Trail may contain campsites, shelters, and related public use 
facilities as permitted and as are compatible with the nature and purpose 
of the Trail. Use of motor vehicles is allowed by administrative 



regulation in force at the time of this designation. Private landowners 
whose lands are included in the Trail pursuant to cooperative agreement 
can use motorized vehicles on or across the Trail or adjacent lands from 
time to time in accordance with existing or future regulations (Sec. 7(c)). 

7. The Trail is to be marked with a uniform marker. The process to 
mark and maintain the Trail marking requirements is in accord with 
established standards. Erection and maintenance of the markers is to be 
accomplished by the administering Federal, State, local agencies, or 
private interests pursuant to cooperative agreements with the Secretary, 
acting through the designated coordinating agency (Sec. 7(c)). 

8. Appropriated funds may not be used for land acquisition outside the 
exterior boundaries of existing Federal areas. (Sec. 10(c)) Lands or 
interests in lands either inside or outside exterior boundaries of Federal 
areas may be acquired by written cooperative agreement, donation, 
purchase with donated funds or exchange (Sec. 7(d)). Acquisition shall 
be limited to those lands meeting historic trail criteria that are identified 
as high potential route segments or high potential historic sites 
(Sec. 7(g)). 

9. The following priorities for acquisition and disposal shall apply to 
trail segments on non-Federal lands. (Sec. 7(e)). 

Priority 1 . The Secretary will encourage the States, local governments, 
or private interests to provide the right-of-way, if necessary, through 
(1) cooperative agreements with landowners, or (2) through acquisition of 
lands or interests therein. 

Priority 2 . Where State or local governments fail to provide such 
right-of-way as in Priority I above, the Secretary may acquire the 
right-of-way through agreements or acquisition by donation, purchase 
with donated funds, or exchange. Such acquisition shall be limited to 
those lands identified in the plan as high potential route segments or high 
potential historic sites (Sec. 7(g)). 

10. The Secretary may dispose of all title or interest in the land where 
the Trail right-of-way is permanently relocated pursuant to Sec. 7(b). 
The original owner, or his heirs or assigns, must be offered the right of 
first refusal at the fair market price (Sec. 7(e)). 

11. Only specific portions of the lands along the Trail right-of-way 
deemed to be of historic significance according to the criteria for the 
National Register of Historic places are subject to Section 4(f) of 
Department of Transportation Act (49 U.S.C. 1653(f) (Sec. 7(g)). 

12. The Trail is to be developed and maintained for public use through 
individual agency appropriations on Federal lands, and through 
cooperative agreements for non-Federal lands. The Secretary may 
reserve a right-of-way on any lands he conveys under any of the public 
land laws, to the extent necessary for the purposes of the Trail 
(Sec. 7(b)). 



13. The Secretary may grant easements or rights-of-way along any 
component of the Trail as long as their conditions are compatible with 
Trail policy and purposes (Sec. 9(a)). 



Other Federal Constraints 

Acts of Congress 

Antiquities Act of 1906 (16 U.S.C. 431 et. seq.) 

Archeological and Historic Preservation Act of 1974 (16 U.S.C. 
469a-1 et. sec}. ) 

Clean Air Act and amendments (42 U.S.C. 7401 et. seq . ) 

Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 208, 303, 401, 402, 404, 405, 511, 1288, 
1314, 1341, 1342, 1344) 

Endangered Species Act of 1973 as amended (Section 7) (16 U.S.C. 
1531 et. secj. ) 

Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act of 1974 88 (Stat. 
246) 

Federal Environmental Pesticide Control Act of 1972 (7 U.S.C. 135 
et. seq . ) 

Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (90 Stat. 2744) 

Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act of 1934 as amended (16 U.S.C. 
661 et. seq . ) 

Intergovernmental Coordination Act of 1968 (42 U.S.C. 4201, 4231, 
4233) (A-95 review process, including urban impact analysis) 

Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965 (Section 6(f) (16 
U.S.C. 4601-8(f)) 

National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, as amended (16 U.S.C. 
470f.) 

National Park Service Act of August 25, 1916 (16 U.S.C. 1 et. 

seq . ) as amended 

National Park System Mining Activity (16 U.S.C. 1901 et. seq. ) 

Noise Control Act of 1972 as amended (42 U.S.C. 4901) 

Payment in Lieu of Taxes Act (31 U.S.C. 1601 et. seq . ) 

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (42 U.S.C. 3251 et. 
seq . ) 



Safe Drinking Water Act (42 U.S.C. 300f-j) 

Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (30 U.S.C. 1201 
et. seq . ) 

Toxic Substances Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1601 et. seq . ) 

Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies 
Act of 1970 (42 U.S.C. 4201 et. seq. and 4651 et. seq.) 



Executive Requirements 

Executive Order 11593: 

Executive Order 11644: 

Executive Order 11870: 

Executive Order 11988: 

Executive Order 11989: 

Executive Order 11990: 

Executive Order 11991: 

Executive Order 12003: 
Executive Order 12088: 



"Protection and Enhancement of the 
Cultural Environment" 

"Use of Offroad Vehicles on the Public 
Lands" 

"Environmental Safeguards on Activities for 
Animal Damage Control on Federal Lands" 

"Floodplain Management" 

"Offroad Vehicles on Public Lands" 

"Protection of Wetlands" 

"Protection and Enhancement of 

Environmental Quality" 

"Energy Policy and Conservation" 

"Federal Compliance with Pollution Control 
Standards" 



HISTORIC OVERVIEW 



The Mormon emigration was one of the principal forces in the settlement 
of the West. The Mormons had in mind traveling to what was then 
Mexican territory, seeking a place to establish their religious community. 
History has recorded their vast contribution to the development of the 
Nation and the West in a large number of historical publications. This 
plan is based on information found in these publications as referenced in 
Appendix G. 

In February, 1846, Brigham Young and a group of Mormons departed 
Nauvoo, Illinois, crossing the Mississippi River by boat to the Iowa 
shore. From there, they pioneered an overland route with way stations 
across Iowa, and wintered on the Missouri River near present-day Omaha, 
Nebraska. Others followed and by the end of 1846 over 3,700 Mormons 
were settled at Winter Quarters, Nebraska and in Kanesville, Iowa. 

In the spring of 1847, President Brigham Young and a pioneer company of 
149 men, women and children continued westward. They followed the 
north side of the Platte River through modern Nebraska to Fort Laramie 
in what is now Wyoming. From there, they generally followed the path of 
the Oregon Trail and other routes to Fort Bridger. The pioneers then 
veered southerly, following the Hastings cutoff route into Utah and the 
Great Salt Lake Basin. 

This 1846-1847 trek is the primary theme of the comprehensive plan. 
Other aspects of the Mormon movement, such as the later use of 
handcarts, establishment of ferries, trading and similar subjects, have 
secondary emphasis in the plan. 



Significance 

The pioneer Mormon migration, one of the dramatic events in the history 
of American westward expansion, was unique in comparison to other 
migrations because of its purpose, organization and cultural impact. Its 
purpose was to maintain the cohesiveness of the Mormon community, and 
thus became a permanent movement of a whole people. 

Unlike the sometimes loose discipline of other wagon trains, the Mormon 
pioneer company was organized in semi-military fashion into tens, fifties, 
and hundreds, led by Brigham Young as general and with others serving 
as company captains, hunters and scouts. Also, unlike many other 
emigrant companies, the first thoughts of Brigham Young's pioneers were 
to improve the route for the Mormons who would follow. They measured 
distances and set up mileposts; noted good locations for camping, wood, 
water and forage; and generally became the guide for the thousands of 
emigrants who later followed this trail. 

In their later, secondary efforts, the Mormons established semi-permanent 
communities and ferry crossings of major importance. They graded down 
steep approaches to fords, cleared boulders out of the trail, and made 
the route easier. These efforts identified a two-way wagon road as a 



10 



continuous route eastward to pick up supplies and new converts at the 
Missouri River, or to meet faltering companies and help them on to Salt 
Lake City. In southern Iowa particularly, they established some of the 
first communities, roads and bridges. They made Winter Quarters 
(Omaha) and Kanesville (Council Bluffs) into outfitting points that rivaled 
the Missouri towns of Independence, Westport and St. Louis. The way 
they followed became a major transportation route. The culmination of 
this migratory effort was primarily the centralization of a religious 
community and the settlement and industrial development of Utah. 

There are tertiary aspects of significance for the route of the Mormon 
Pioneer National Historic Trail. It crosses the Lewis and Clark National 
Historic Trail at the Missouri River and the Continental Divide National 
Scenic Trail at South Pass. In places, it parallels or has connections 
with several other Old West routes such as the Oregon National Historic 
Trail. These adjacent or coincident trails used by early-day Indians, 
explorers, missionaries, fur traders, mountain men and miners are still 
keys to potential travel and historic attractions, such as ghost towns, 
mining operations, museums and reconstructed "boom towns" and other 
areas of historic, scenic and natural importance. 



The Trail Environment 

The Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail begins in the east at Nauvoo, 
Illinois and goes westward for 1,300 miles through Iowa, Nebraska, 
Wyoming and Utah, terminating at Salt Lake City. (See General Vicinity 
Map). This cross-country route provides a wide variety of climate, 
vegetation and terrain as it passes through the Great Plains, crosses the 
backbone of the continent at South Pass, and descends the Pacific slope 
of the Rockies to the Salt Lake Valley (see trail elevation and climatic 
data). The Trail today presents a contrast of pastoral scenes, urban 
traffic, river valleys, stark desert, and rugged, forested mountains and 
canyons. Population figures for 1970 show that over 6 million people live 
within 100 miles of the Trail. The 1978 Mormon Trail Study Report 
estimates that this population will be about 8 million by the year 2000. 

Nearly two-thirds of the Trail is now in private ownership (see land 
ownership table). The remainder is located on public land, about half of 
which is State-owned highway rights-of-way. The balance of public 
ownership is State and Federal. Land ownership patterns in each state 
along the route is provided in Table 1 and are not expected to change 
significantly in the future. 



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TABLE I - LAND OWNERSHIP 
Ownership in Linear Miles (km) 









State 














State 


Federal 


and 


Local 


Priv 


ate 




Total 




Illinois 


-- 






Iowa 







10 


( 16) 


275 


( 


443) 


285 


( 


459) 


Nebraska 


50 


( 80) 


95 


(153) 


345 


( 


555) 


490 


( 


788) 


Wyoming 


213 


(343) 


70 


(113) 


170 


( 


274) 


453 


( 


730) 


Utah 


1 


( 2) 


39 


( 63) 


32 


( 


51) 


72 


( 


116) 


TOTALS 


264 


(425) 


214 


(345) 


822 


(1 


,323) 


1,300 


(2,093) 


PERCENT 
1^ • 


20 




16 




64 






100 







Point of departure (east bank of the Mississippi River at Nauvoo) 
Table prepared by HCRS and reported in "The Mormon Trail-A Study 
Report," 1978 



Among Federal agencies, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in 
Wyoming administers most of the Federal properties that would provide 
lands for the Trail. However, these BLM-managed lands are very often 
interspersed with private and State lands. The resulting ownership 
pattern makes it difficult to form a large or continuous Federal trail. 
The National Park Service (NPS) administers a portion of the route 
through Fort Laramie National Historic Site, Wyoming. The U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service (NPS) controls small sections of the original route at the 
Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge, Illinois and Iowa; and at the 
Pathfinder and Seedskadee National Wildlife Refuges, Wyoming. In Utah, 
the Trail crosses portions of the Wasatch National Forest administered by 
the Forest Service (FS). 

Most of the land along the Trail route is in agricultural use, including 
croplands and grazing. Light industry and small businesses are located 
in the several towns along the route. (See land use patterns table.) 

There are no forseeable major shifts in land use with the possible 
exception of coal, oil, and uranium development in Wyoming and eastern 
Utah. 

The Mormon route passes through certain areas containing deposits of oil 
shale, coal, phosphate, trona and uranium. There is active drilling for 
oil in the Cache Cave Basin, Utah, for example; and the Sweetwater 
Rocks in Wyoming has spilled uranium tailings. 



14 



TABLE II - LAND USE PATTERNS 1 
Type of Land Use in Linear Miles (km.) 



State 



Urban 



Agriculture 



Forest 



Other 



Total 



19 


( 31) 


254 


( 


409) 


10 


(16) 


2 


( 3) 


285 


( 459) 


34 


( 55) 


445 


( 


716) 


8 


(13) 


3 


( 5) 


490 


( 789) 


22 


( 35) 


417 


( 


671) 


6 


(10) 


8 


(13) 


453 


( 729) 


_8 


( 13) 


45 


( 


72) 


19 


(31) 




-- 


72 


( 115) 


83 


(134) 


1,161 


(1 


,868) 


43 


(70) 


13 


(21) 


1,300 


(2,093) 


6 




90 








3 




1 


100 



III- • 3 

Illinois 

Iowa 

Nebraska 

Wyoming 

Utah 

TOTALS 

PERCENT 

1 
Table prepared by HCRS and reported in "The Mormon Trail-A Study Report," 

J978 

-Recreation, commercial, and industrial use. 

Point of departure (east bank of the Mississippi River at Nauvoo). 

The 1978 Mormon Trail Study Report stated that in 1975 total visitation at 
historic sites and recreation areas along the route was estimated at 
8,900,000 and was based on data supplied by Federal and State agencies 
and by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. The report 
predicted that development of the Trail will create a small increase in 
local tax revenues and employment levels. Because of the time 
constraints necessary to prepare the plan and because only a relatively 
short period has elapsed since the study report was published, this 
comprehensive plan only presents statistics of change in Table III. This 
table may be used as an indicator of the trend of visitation at established 
or designated recreation/historic sites along the Trail, considering the 
availability of fuel, state of the economy, and similar factors: 



TABLE III - Representative Changes in Use 1975-1980 
Sources 



Percent Visitation Change 
from 1975 to 1980 



Nauvoo Restoration, Inc. 

All Iowa state parks 

All Nebraska state park & recreation 

areas (1975-1979) 
All Wyoming state parks 
Fort Laramie National Historic Site 
Pioneer State Park, Utah 



+76.7 
+14.4 

+ 6.8 
+98.0 
-14.7 
-19.3 



15 



A variety of wildlife is to be found along the route. This includes 
whitetail deer in the eastern portion, and mule deer, antelope, elk and 
black bear in the west. A number of common furbearers are present. 
Upland game birds are important species found along the way. Migrating 
birds, particularly waterfowl, utilize the trail corridor extensively, 
especially the Platte River. The Trail may intersect habitats used by five 
endangered species. They are the black-footed ferret, Mustela nigripes ; 
Indiana bat, Myotis sodalis ; whooping crane, Grus americana ; American 
peregrine falcon, Falco peregrinus anatum ; and the Arctic peregrine 
falcon, Falco peregrinus tundrius . 

The 1978 study report and its 1976 environmental assessment and negative 
declaration identifies 146 sites along the Trail as listed in the National 
Register of Historic Places, including two national historic sites (Chimney 
Rock and Fort Laramie) and three national historic landmarks. Of these 
listings, only about 24 pertain to the themes of this plan (see 
Appendix C). 



Following Chapters 

The remainder of this plan comprises those elements necessary to (1) 
fulfill the requirements of the National Trails System Act; and (2) enable 
individual managers to integrate management of the Trail with their other 
responsibilities and interests. 

The Objectives and Practices section outlines (1) the overall framework 
for Trail management; (2) the themes for historical interpretation; and 
(3) the goals and procedures that guide actions to implement trail use. 

The Trail Plan section gives a phasing of (1) specific recommended 
actions and what managing entity is to carry them out; (2) how the Trail 
is to be marked, including (a) a driving route, (b) Federal segments, 
and (c) non-Federal segments; (3) the important resources of the Trail, 
including descriptions and management possibilities for established and 
potential segments; (4) suggested developments; and (5) details of 
proposed cooperative agreements. 

Part II, the Finding of No Significant Impact, fulfills documentation 
requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act. Part III, the 
Appendices , provides supplementary reference material, including maps of 
the Trail across each affected state. 

The following definitions are used in this plan: 

Authorized and Established Trail Authorized and established 1,300-mile 

wagon route followed by President 
Brigham Young and pioneers in 
1846-1847 (see Appendix A Sec. 
5(c)(11)) that is designated as a 
component of the National Trail System. 
Both the highway route and the original 
route, including deviations around 
private lands, are designated Trails. 



1 6 



High Potential Site or Segment 



A specific place or portion of Trail and 
its immediate environment that provides 
opportunity to interpret the historic 
significance of the Trail and/or enables 
users to relate to the original pioneer 
experiences. 



Initial Protection Segment 



A Federal segment of the Trail as 
established in this plan, meeting the 
above definition for high potential 
public use. 



Certified Protection Segment 



A non-Federal site or segment of the 
Trail identified in this plan as meeting 
the above definition for high potential 
public use. 



Designated Auto Route 



A primary marked highway system 
established by this plan to parallel and 
commemorate the historic route. 



Auto Connector Route 



A marked system of secondary roads to 
provide additional points of public 
access to historic sites or segments. 



Trail Right-of-Way 



A flexible width of land along the line 
of the original trail route. Across 
Federal lands, this width will be 
determined by the managing agency. 



17 



OBJECTIVES AND PRACTICES 



FRAMEWORK AND STRATEGIES 

The Trail Study Report and the Congressional legislation shown in 
Appendix A, recognize that much of the Mormon Pioneer route has been 
drastically altered by private and governmental ownerships, farmlands, 
roads, urban settings, utility lines, oil fields and similar evidence of 
economic progress so that today, only small portions of the route remain 
essentially as the pioneers saw the Trail. 

Development necessary for visitor or administrative use will be commen- 
surate with those portions of the remaining Trail. The primary use is and 
will continue to be reenactment of the pioneer trek and travel of the 
route. Expected modes and levels of visitor use generated by the Trail 
will be incorporated into existing and proposed management plans 
concerning other responsibilities of public agencies and private interests. 

Protection, development, interpretation and management is to be based on 
the cultural, natural, and recreational values found along the Trail. 

Primary cultural values are those related to the initial Mormon pioneers' 
movement in their trek of 1846-1847 from Nauvoo to the Salt Lake Basin. 

Secondary cultural aspects involve post-1847 Mormon travels such as 
handcart operations, supply depots, way stations, mail stations, and 
second-hand oxen dealerships, in addition to Indian, mountain men, 
military cultures and similar themes. 

Natural values of flora, fauna, geology, topography, scenery and related 
aspects are found in the Great Plains, the Platte River Valley, other 
riverine habitats, and in the Central Rocky Mountains. 

The significance of both the cultural and natural values are presented in 
the Significant Resources section of the comprehensive plan. 

Recreational opportunities associated with land and water resources along 
the trail are identified in the 1978 Mormon Trail Study Report. The 
Trail, according to this plan, will accommodate hiking, horseback riding, 
pleasure driving, recreational vehicle use, camping, picnicking, and 
sightseeing, where compatible with historic and natural resources and 
level of use. 

Special events encompassing wagon trains, long-distance running, biking 
tours, motorized trail tours, cross-country skiing, and snowmobiling will 
be accommodated as feasible. 

The above framework combined with the following Interpretive Themes, 
Management Objectives, and Management Practices are provided for use by 
managing entities to administer, develop, and manage the Initial Protection 
Segments and subsequent Certified Protected Segments of the Trail. 



18 



These are planning assumptions used to develop the trail plan . 

1. Extensive land acquisition will not substantially increase overall 
quality and use. 

2. The bulk of the expressed demand (unmeasured) can be served by 
existing programs. 

3. The physical location per se of the Trail is not expected to generate 
a large amount of additional recreational use, nor to justify extensive 
developments for such use. 

4. The plan considers commerce, trade, military, and railroad events 
related to the Trail as secondary themes. 

5. Trail management is expected to have high priority among other land 
uses within the established segments. 

6. Federal, State and local agencies will seek funds from appropriate 
sources for marking, developing and administering the various segments 
of the Trail. Some degree of Federal funding is a key element in having 
this plan and the Trail actually implemented on the ground. However, it 
is unlikely that significant Federal funds will become available in a timely 
manner for development of the Trail on non-Federal segments. State and 
local agencies will need to rely heavily on their own sources of funds for 
development projects on such segments. 



Interpretive Themes 

The interpretive emphasis of the Trail will be that the Mormons were one 
of the principal forces in the settlement of the West. Here was one of 
the first opening thrusts of the permanent movement of a whole people 
into frontier territories. 



Policy 

TO PROVIDE VISITORS WITH A FOUNDATION OF INFORMATION WITH 
WHICH THEY CAN BUILD AN UNDERSTANDING AND APPRECIATION OF 
THE MORMON MOVEMENT AND ITS NATURAL, HISTORIC AND 
CULTURAL SIGNIFICANCE TO THE AMERICAN HERITAGE. 

Interpretation will stress the qualities that made the Mormons' pioneer 
effort different from the Oregon and California migrations. The com- 
position of the wagon trains, the pioneer motives, their organization and 
discipline, and similar topics will be shown. This pioneer movement will 
not only be identified with the nineteenth century emigrations as a whole, 
but will also be marked by its contrast and separateness from other 
movements. 

The continuity of the Trail will be maintained by discussions at each site 
of the progress made by the pioneers to that point and that site's 
relationship to the rest of the Trail. 



19 



At Nauvoo, Illinois, visitors will learn of the overall resources to be 
found along the entire length of the Trail. There should also be a 
discussion of the reasons that led the Mormons westward. 

Through Iowa, the theme will emphasize the learning of pioneer and 
emigration skills, as well as opening of Southern Iowa to permanent 
habitation. The formation and departure of the Mormon Battalion is an 
aspect for discussion here. 

In Nebraska, the accent will be on crossing the Missouri River; the 
establishment of the outpost of Winter Quarters at Florence; the 
preparation and departure of the main pioneer effort in 1847; the 
selection of the north side of the Platte River as the migration route; and 
life on the trail, including the shared experiences and adaptability of the 
Mormons that perfected and strengthened their social organization. 

Across Wyoming, the hardships encountered by the pioneers can best be 
interpreted. Also, an important part of the story here is the intercourse 
with other emigrants, mountain men, traders, etc., as well as the 
separation the Mormons sought from others. The Mormon Pioneer and the 
Oregon National Historic Trails coincide from Fort Laramie to Fort Bridger 
and much of the interpretation along this stretch will deal simultaneously 
with both Trails. 

In Utah, the strategy will be to tell of the difficulties the pioneers 
encountered in following the Donner-Reed party route and the realization 
that the end of the journey had been reached. For Trail users traveling 
eastward, the overall resources of the entire Trail will also be presented. 

Climate, topography, geology and ecology will receive interpretive 
emphasis along the Trail. 

The pioneers noted the difference in climate between the more humid Iowa 
and eastern Nebraska, and the semi-arid conditions found west of the 
100th meridian. 

The broad valley of the Platte River and the ruggedness of the western 
terrain will have special attention. 

Geological formations that were major landmarks for the emigrants, along 
with plants and animals encountered along the route, will be interpreted 
both as to their relationship to the Trail and as to how the pioneers 
viewed them. 

The plan fully recognizes that the 1846-1847 effort was only the first 
wave of a tide of Mormon migration and influence. Although the main 
interpretive effort is on the initial pioneer trek, other aspects of the 
Trail will also be interpreted. 

These will include return journeys of some of the pioneers to lead later 
emigrants to Utah; the establishment of ferries and outposts to aid later 
companies; the unique handcart emigrations of 1856, and similar related 
subjects. 



20 



Interpretation of the Trail will interweave the pioneer efforts with the 
advancements of civilization and the resultant changes to the lands as a 
result of the migration efforts. 



MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVES 

The Secretary of the Interior is mandated to administer the Trail for 
present and future generations and protect and enhance the values that 
caused the Trail to be included in the National Trails System. 



Policy 

TO MANAGE THE TRAIL IN A MANNER TO PROTECT THE QUALITY OF 
CULTURAL, NATURAL, AND HISTORIC VALUES, AND PROTECT 
CERTAIN TRAIL LANDS IN THEIR NATURAL CONDITION SO AS TO 
PROVIDE FOR OUTDOOR RECREATION AND PUBLIC USE 

The Secretary of the Interior, through the lead Federal agency, will 
assure that the following are accomplished: 



Administration 

The statutory scheme created in the original Act and employed in the 1978 
Act demonstrates that Congress intended the Secretary of the Interior to 
be responsible for assuring that State administered segments are in 
conformity with the National Trails System. 

The Secretary of the Interior's oversight of State administered portions is 
specifically provided in the Act. State designated segments can only be 
admitted by his approval. 

1. Encourage the Trail's advisory council to solicit ideas, opinions and 
information from the public concerning the trail's management. 

2. Establish Trail resource inventories and monitor Trail use and 
impacts and conduct research to collect information to solve Trail resource 
and management problems. 

3. Provide for the periodical review of the Trail segments to assure 
compliance with the intent of the enabling legislation of the National Trails 
System. 

4. Seek Cooperative Agreements or Memoranda of Understanding with 
appropriate Federal, State, and local agencies and private organizations 
and individuals that will assure accomplishment of the purposes of the 
Trail. (See Cooperative Agreement Section). 

5. In accordance with Secretarial Order 3017, the National Park Service 
will periodically report to the Secretary, the President and the Congress 
on the progress of implementing the provisions of this plan. 



21 



6. Encourage appropriate and continuing communication between the 
Trail managing agencies and other coordinating groups in a manner 
reflecting the interest and responsibilities of affected administrations. 

7. Management of designated sites and segments shall be the 
responsibility of the agency, organization, or private owner as identified 
in the plan and shall be made available for public use and enjoyment. 

8. Seek to have significant cultural sites considered for nomination to 
the National Register of Historic Places. 

9. Seek to have significant natural areas considered for nomination to 
the National Register of Natural Landmarks. 

10. Encourage all agencies, States, organizations, and private individuals 
to adopt the official logo in their signing program and to use it when 
replacement is needed or as their maintenance program allows. 

11. Encourage privately chartered foundations, organizations, and 
associations to participate in and support the accomplishment of the plan. 

12. Continuously consult with State, local, and private entities on 
matters concerning Trail location, site development, interpretation, 
maintenance, and use management. 



Visitor Services 

1 . Assure that each managing entity develop and administer segments of 
the Trail in a manner that protects the health and safety of visitors and 
employees. 

2. Publications, maps and other material for interpreting the Trail 
should be of prime interest and have priority over development of 
facilities. Such publications should make the public aware of private 
lands along the Trail and the need for landowners' permission to cross 
such lands. 

3. A program for recreation information and interpretation should be 
developed to help the visitor better understand and appreciate the natural 
setting of the Trail. 



Regulations 

Promulgate and issue rules and regulations as needed for sites and 
segments of the Trail to assure proper use, preservation and protection 
of the trail's resources. 



Multiple Use 

1. Trail management shall not restrict land uses or activities that were 
existing within the Trail right-of-way at the time of designation of the 
Trail as a national historic trail. 

22 



2. New land uses and/or activities (post-designation) within the 
right-of-way should be compatible with management of the Trail as an 
historic resource. Uses may be permitted if the proposed use does not 
change the Trail classification to a lower classification and/or lessen the 
historic trail experience associated with the following classifications. 

Intact : Relatively undisturbed Trail which is easily identifiable both on 
the ground and on aerial photographs. 

Disturbed : Trail identifiable on the ground and on aerial photographs 
where other uses have disturbed the Trail. 

Destroyed : Trail route disturbed by man's activities, such as road 
construction, pipelines, etc. 

Obliterated : Evidence of Trail route disturbed by natural environmental 
factors, such as changes in stream courses. 

Probable Route : The actual route is unidentifiable in the ground or on 
aerial photographs. 

Possible Disturbance: Areas subject to future disturbance. 



MANAGEMENT PRACTICES 

Provision of facilities in the Trail corridor and along the designated Auto 
Trail Route, Offroad Vehicle (ORV) Route, and Horse and Foot Trails 
must be in accord with this Comprehensive Plan. 



Policy 

TO PROVIDE NEEDED PUBLIC FACILITIES FOR THE USE OF 
SIGNIFICANT TRAIL RESOURCES IN A MANNER TO AVOID 
UNDESIRABLE IMPACTS ON THE ENVIRONMENT AND IN CONFORMANCE 
WITH APPLICABLE LAWS AND REGULATIONS. 

Facilities should be developed for cultural and recreational activities in 
segments of the Trail only when all of the following criteria are met: 

Facilities are limited to signs, markers, non-manned interpretive devices 
and recreational features necessary to carry out the management 
objectives for the Trail. 

The priority for development is based on the primary, secondary and 
tertiary themes presented in this plan. 

The construction and operation of the facility will not impact the Trail's 
resource, use, or purpose. 

The facility cannot feasibly be provided by other Federal, State, local or 
private organizations or interests outside the Trail right-of-way. 



23 



Planning 

The following guidances are management practices needed to fully 
implement the plan: 

1. Joint-use Trail right-of-way and facilities, including interpretation, 
will be utilized where National Historic and National Scenic Trails cross or 
coincide. 

2. Assist and encourage managing agencies to coordinate with private 
transportation, public service irrigation, ranchers and similar companies 
regarding appropriate uses or crossings of the Trail. 

3. Provide direction to nonFederal entities on how to apply for certi- 
fication of protected segments of the Trail. 

4. Seek the advice of and cooperate with the Mormon Pioneer National 
Historic Trail Advisory Council concerning matters relating to the 
designation, marking and administration of the Trail. 

5. Federal and State trails, wild and scenic rivers, natural areas and 
similar programs will be coordinated into the trail planning effort. 

6. Managing agencies have responsibility to establish boundaries, 
resolve location and proximity of competing uses for those sites or 
segments meeting the criteria shown in Appendix D. 

7. States are responsible for preparing and implementing detailed 
segment plans for development, protection, operation, and maintenance of 
potential segments as discussed in the plan. 

8. Simple orientation devices should be utilized where traffic patterns 
permit. The standards should include a panel to orient travelers to the 
present location, a regional panel with points of historical or recreational 
interests and attractions shown, and a panel to show travel services 
available in the local area and on down the road. These should be mass 
produced for a particular State and erected at designated locations by 
State or county road crews. 

9. Roadside information signs should be simple orientation devices where 
traffic volume or location does not warrant a manned information center. 

The plan favors the motorized use of primitive road rights-of-way in 
combination with hiking and horse trails where feasible and compatible. 
There are 47 miles of existing rights-of-way to be used in this manner. 

10. Motorized vehicle use by the general public on selected high 
potential hiking and horse trail segments would be prohibited. 



Development 

1. Federal, State, and local agencies are encouraged to utilize existing 
Federal funding sources for assistance in developing visitor use facilities 
within the Trail right-of-way. 

24 



2. Uniform system of markers will be erected as discussed in the plan's 
marking process in a manner consistent with the guidelines in the Manual 
of Uniform Traffic Control and to conform with standards established by 
the American Association of State Highway Transportation officials. 

3. Public access to the Trail shall be limited to those areas where 
ownership or easements have been acquired or cooperative agreements 
established and all necessary steps have been taken to assure their 
protection. 

4. The lead Federal agency will develop educational programs to 
emphasize private property rights as well as to provide information on 
proper Trail use, and availability of sites, and segments for public use. 

5. Uniform system of markers will be accomplished in the following 
order of priority: 

a. Major U.S. and State highway crossings, all high-potential sites 
or segments, all existing and/or future visitor information 
centers; especially at Interstate Highway rest areas adjacent to 
the Trail. 

b. County roadways. 

c. Selected seasonal routes such as BLM and F&WS routes where 
such roadways provide access to or intersect the Trail. 

6. Each managing agency will develop its own means of preserving trail 
ruts on a case-by-case basis. Such means might be fencing rut areas, 
restricting or encouraging vehicle travel over the ruts, or other 
techniques as appropriate. 

7. Trails and canoe routes should be developed and marked for use, 
with access to rivers and trails provided at key points on public lands 
for use by hikers and other recreationists. These sites should be 
provided with suitable parking areas, restrooms, and orientation devices. 
Such use will be compatible with the themes of the Trail. 

8. Development of strategically located public camping areas along the 
Trail should be undertaken to allow overnight use without infringing on 
private ownership rights. 

9. Existing public areas and highway right-of-way will be utilized to 
provide visitor facilities, orientation and interpretation along the Trail. 



Construction 

1. Encourage all managing entities to utilize energy-efficient process in 
all aspects of the Trail's management, interpretation, construction and 
maintenance. 

2. Federal or State trail design and construction standards will be 
utilized in developing segments of the Trail. 



25 



3. Cooperative agreements will be negotiated with appropriate State, 
local, and private interests to establish responsibilities for the 
construction, maintenance, and operation of this plan. 



Acquisition 

1. No private lands will be acquired for purposes of the Mormon Pioneer 
National Historic Trail through Federal condemnation procedures or by fee 
purchase with appropriated Federal funds within the trail right-of-way. 

2. The priority of acquisition of key areas by donation, exchange, or 
other non-appropriated sources would be: 1) to preserve the natural, 
historical, and cultural resources of the trail, and 2) to manage access. 

3. The Secretary of the Interior or the States should acquire perpetual 
easement, partial interests, or exchanges where needed. 

4. Authority to use appropriated funds for land acquisition may be 
sought by the lead Federal agency, but shall be limited to case by case 
basis outside Federal boundaries and used only where other methods have 
been unsuccessful. 

5. Access points should be developed near major river crossings to 
allow for public use of the river for canoeing, hiking, wildlife obser- 
vation, and other recreation activities. 

6. A flexible width right-of-way should be designated (within high 
potential segments) across Federal lands to permit access and to preserve 
the route and the quality of the Trail experience. This measure would 
require withdrawal of the public lands involved from mineral entry, 
preclude oil and gas related surface occupancy, and prohibit authorization 
of organized or commercial recreation activities not in keeping with the 
historic character of the Trail. Acceptable uses are identified in the 
criteria found in Appendix D, and will be monitored by the managing 
entity. 

7. Consideration should be given to obtaining easement and leases from 
property owners to ensure Trail continuity and development. 



Private Lands and Rights 

1. Private landowners are encouraged to participate in Trail 
management, at their own initiative, by petitioning the Secretary of 
Interior to enter into cooperative agreements. However, such 
participation is not required. 

2. No appropriated Federal funds shall be expended to acquire privately 
owned lands. 

3. Where private lands can be avoided by minor rerouting of the trail 
from private to public lands, this shall be done where historical accuracy 
will not be distorted. 



26 



4. Planning for proposed developed facilities near privately owned lands 
shall be in cooperation with the affected owners. 

5. Access for trail purposes across private lands shall be sought only 
for those Initial Protection Trail Segments where minor rerouting for 
access cannot be accomplished or where the only feasible access to 
significant sites on public land is to cross private ownership. Such 
access shall be sought only with the affected owner's approval. 




27 



TRAIL MANAGEMENT 



ADMINISTRATION AND IMPLEMENTATION 

The Trail plan presented applies to federal portions of the Mormon 
Pioneer National Historic Trail as well as other portions of this historic 
route which will be certified for inclusion into the National Trails System. 

The plan establishes the management and use of "significant or high 

potential" sites whose identification and location are shown in the 

significant resources section. There are other significant non-federal 

sites and these public or privately developed areas have been deemed 

compatible with the overall Trail management plan and will be encouraged. 

The Trail plan will serve as a fund raising tool by Federal, State and 
local agencies to purchase rights-of-way, develop facilities, and furnish 
informational materials related to the Trail. 

No lands or interests in lands may be acquired without the consent of the 
owner. Non-Federal landowners are encouraged to enter into cooperative 
management with the Federal agency managing adjoining segments of the 
Trail. 

Funding all Trail marking, development, and research should be in Phase 
I and be from one source of funds. This could be from the Secretary's 
Discretionary Reserve Fund, which is earmarked to preserve historic 
districts associated with the Nation's minorities, Native Americans, and 
ethnic populations, or from the Land and Water Conservation Fund, which 
provides matching grants to states and local governments to plan, 
acquire, and develop outdoor recreation areas and facilities. 

Research will consider what guidelines are needed to help resolve land 
use conflicts, how to communicate with private land owners, how to 
establish and determine the Trail location, and how to communicate Trail 
information to the public and private interests. 

The plan focuses attention on needed changes that could be immediately 
implemented through administrative actions. These actions include, but 
are not restricted to, marking Trail boundaries, access locations, marking 
auto routes, developing Trail standards, coordination of types of use and 
restrictions, and identification of Trail alignment. 

The plan recognizes that there are matters that are likely to require 
statutory or institutional changes. The Manual on Uniform Traffic Control 
Devices has not recognized standards utilized for signing on roads used 
primarily for recreation purposes. There is the opportunity to develop 
standards applicable to low volume recreational roads, and for its adoption 
by the National Committee for the Manual. 

Roadside information signs should be simple orientation devices to be 
utilized where traffic volume does not warrant a more fully developed 
information station. 



28 



The plan establishes six "Initial Protection Segments" for Federal 
management, including 47 miles of cross-country routes. There are 8 
Federally administered historic, natural, or cultural sites having national 
significance located within the segment areas. 

The plan also identifies 75 sites on non-federal lands in five states that 
have national, state, or local significance that are considered as Potential 
Certified Segments to the Trail. 

The plan designates 1,385 miles of national, state, or local highway 
systems to be marked as an auto trail and another 239 miles of secondary 
connector routes so as to meet the requirements of Sec. 7(c) of the Act. 
The program to mark the Trail is discussed in the marking process 
chapter. 

The plan outlines the opportunity for future addition of 560 acres located 
in three separate parcels as needed to provide trail continuity and 
enhance trail interpretation of non-federal features adjacent to Initial 
Protection Segments. 

The following are phase actions needed to implement the plan. These 
plan implementation elements are not necessarily presented in the order in 
which they may be carried out. In some instances, it may be convenient 
to combine two or more of the implementation elements. 



DECISIONS OR ACTIONS 



Phase I - Short Term Actions 



Action Official 



This plan will become effective 90 days after 
being presented by the Secretary of the Interior 
to the President of the Senate and Speaker of the 
House and publication of its availability in the 
Federal Register. 

Delegate the National Park Service as the 
Federal agency to coordinate Trail planning and 
administration of the Trail. A technical support 
office based in the National Park Service will 
perform support functions. Consider a cen- 
tralized office for planning and administration 
of national trails. 



Secretary 
of the 
Interior 



Secretary 
of the 
Interior 



Appropriate officials for Federal agencies at 
both the Washington and Regional or State levels will 
insure that the plan becomes operational during the 
Phase I period. 

Enter into cooperative agreements with states 
and local units of government and private organizations 
and individuals for their participation in managing the 
Trail, including certification of Trail segments. 



NPS, BLM, 
FS, F&WS 



NPS, BLM, 
FS, F&WS 



29 



Federal and State agencies will appoint an individual 
to serve as that agency's coordinator for all Trail 
functions. 



NPS, BLM, 
FS, F&WS, 
States 



6. Program and request funds for the initial phase 
marking program, purchase markers, and distribute them 
to Federal agencies, States, and private entities. 

7. Seek registration of the officially adopted logo 
or symbol. Any use of the official Trail logo on 
brochures, signs, products, or any other use should be 
approved by the lead Federal agency. 

8. Monitor and research daily use to assure that 
resources are being protected and that visitors 
have an enjoyable experience. Periodically monitor 
for maintenance needs. 



NPS 



NPS 



Administering 
Agencies 



9. Prepare land ownership status map of lands 
within the established segments. 

10. Formulate plans for visitor management, facility 
use, and development of informational material for 
Trail use and to implement the requirements focused 
in this comprehensive plan. 

11. Negotiate with landowners for lands or interests 

in lands within established segments necessary for the 
Trail on a willing seller basis. 

12. Publish rights-of-way for those lands that are 
included within the established segments in the Federal 
Register. 



Administering 
Agencies 

Federal/State 



Federal 



NPS, BLM, 
F&WS, 



13. Provide counsel and advice to the Secretary of 

the Interior in the administration and management of 
the Trail . 



Advisory 
Council 



14. Enter into cooperative agreements with lead 
Federal agency for participation in cooperative Trail 
management. 

15. Erect and maintain Trail markers. All states 

and agencies be encouraged to adopt the official logo 
in their signing program and use it when replacement 
is needed or as their maintenance programs allow. 

16. State to establish priority accounts for implementing 
the preparation of State management and use plans. 
(See Appendix F. ) 

17. Develop and maintain the Initial Protection 
Segments and marking process in accordance with the 
purposes of this plan. 



States, 

Organizations, 
and Individuals 

Federal/State/ 
Private 



State 



BLM, NPS, 
F&WS 



30 



18. Seek to establish and strengthen the identity of 
of the Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail. 



Secretary 
of the 
Interior 



19. Program and request funds from State legislatures 
to erect and maintain Trail markers (markers to be 
Federally-supplied). 

20. Encourage citizen volunteer participation to work 
with State and Federal agencies in developing, 
maintaining, and administering the Trail. 

21. Implement the comprehensive signing program, 
working within the guidelines established by the Federal 
government, Manual For Uniform Traffic Control Devices, 
to aid visitors in locating attractions and services. 

22. States will work with the proper Federal agencies 

in preserving the remains of this Trail, marking the 
routes, and providing appropriate interpretation 
at selected key points along the Trail. 

23. Establish joint Federal-State-local cooperative 
program to provide information to the public about 
the Trail at the lowest possible cost. 

24. States will provide cooperative interstate efforts 

in order to disperse Regional information along the 
the Trail. 



States 



Federal/State 



Federal, 
State and 
local agencies 



States and 
local agencies 



NPS 

and States 



NPS 

and States 



25. The Church of Jesus Christ of the Later-Day Saints, 

which has shown interest in preservation and interpretation 
of sites related to the Trail, should coordinate interpretive 
efforts for continuity of Trail information at their 
locations. 



Private 



26. Easement of private lands for trail purposes 
will be at a minimum scale. 



States 



27. Promulgate rules and regulations as needed to 
achieve the objectives of the plan and provide for their 
dissemination, understanding, and enforcement. 

28. Conservation agencies within each state will 

assume direct responsibility through cooperative agreement 
for non-federal Trail entities certified within their 
states and will agree to develop and manage their portion 
of the Trail in accordance with the policies and programs 
of the plan. 

29. Consideration should be taken to provide easement 

and leases from property owners to ensure Trail continuity 
and development. 



Federal/States 



States 



Private 



31 



30. Classify Trail condition according to the system identified Administering 
in this plan. Agencies and 

States 

31. Inventory and document entire Trail location and NPS 
conditions by means of video tape or aerial photography, 

and other appropriate means. 

Phase II - Long Term Actions 

1. Prepare a program and establish priorities for NPS/States 
non-Federal acquisition and easement for recreational 

purposes. Less than fee title acquisition will be under 
a willing buyer-willing seller basis. 

2. Program and request funds to implement the Federal/States 
acquisition programs developed in Phase I --management 

and use plans. 

3. Continue an annual maintenance and replacement Federal/States 
trail marking plan. 

4. Monitor all significant cultural resources and Federal 
natural values within the right-of-way on a regular basis. 

5. Negotiate compatible development and use of mineral Federal/States 
resources subject to the requirements of the Federal 

Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 and approval 
of the states. 

6. As a minimum, this plan will be reviewed for Federal/States 
modification every 5 years and will allow for public 

input and review through use of the media and direct 
contact with the users. 

7. Implement a Trail maintenance and development data NPS 
base computer program that itemizes, describes, and locates 
signs and other development facilities. The coding will 

include program language to provide budgetary costs on an 
annual basis. 



32 



SIGNIFICANT RESOURCES 



ESTABLISHMENT 

This portion of the comprehensive plan discusses specific areas that 
contain significant cultural and natural resources pertaining to the 
Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail. For this purpose, natural 
resources are usually discussed in their cultural or recreational context. 

The section is divided into Initial Protection Segments and Potential 
Certified Protected Segments . The narrative for each part presents the 
following information for significant places along the Trail: 

Site Number - (Refers to maps in Appendix H, e.g., Site 5-3 

means Map No. 5, Site #3.) 

Name of Site - (As identified in "The Mormon Trail-A Study 

Report," June 1978. ) 

State - (Political boundary of largest non-Federal 

governmental entity.) 

Rating - (Refers to priority for development, certification, 

obtaining interests, and/or similar concerns. 
Priorities are identified as A=High, B=Medium, 
1=1846-1847 period; and 2=post-1847, e.g., A-1.) 

Historic Significance - (States what happened at this site.) 

Quad Reference - (Gives general location and the name of the U.S. 

Geological Survey 1\ minute quadrangle maps (or 
15-minute quadrangles where applicable) which 
were used in developing and recording the plan 
and which are in the files of the National Park 
Service Rocky Mountain Regional Office, Denver, 
Colorado. 

Potential - (Includes present facilities and the potential for 

development and visitor use.) 

Significance - (States whether the site is primarily important 

from a national, State or local standpoint.) 

Administration - (Gives present ownership and/or suggests what 

entity might best manage the site.) 

Legislation requires the identification of all those high significant trail 
resources to be preserved for trail purposes. To carry out this 
direction, the guidelines shown in Table IV were developed to assure an 
impartial and effective means to identify resource values. 



33 



The guideline chart contains supplemental criteria that was used to judge 
the qualifications of both Initial and Potential Protection Segments for 
entry into the trail system. For judging purposes, the following range of 
numerical totals are used: 80-100 = national significance, 79-61 = state 
significance, 60 and below = local significance. 

The identification process, based on crtieria and judgment factors, was 
used by the study team and state coordinators to judge the trail 
significance and potential of the 252 sites identified in the 1978 "The 
Mormon Trail A Study Report." 

Of that total, 83 sites were considered as being feasible for trail 
purposes. Eight of those sites are located on federally administered areas 
and are established in this plan as part of the six Initial Protection 
Segments (see pages 36 to 67). Seventy-five other non-federal sites are 
identified in this plan as having historic and recreation significance. 
These sites are narrated in the Potential Certified Protection Segments 
(see pages 68 through 91). 



34 



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35 



INITIAL PROTECTION SEGMENTS 

This section identifies those Federally-administered lands which are highly 
significant segments of the Trail. These segments are connected to the 
authorized trail and thus become a part of the Trail right-of-way. The 
segments are flexible in width. The limits of the length of each segment 
are shown on the following segment maps. 

Federal lands within these segments are all located in Wyoming and are 
established by the National Trails System Act as the Mormon Pioneer 
National Historic Trail. There are also non-Federal lands closely related 
to the Federal lands that offer the potential for obtaining necessary 
interests, such as access, to make the entire segment more viable and 
useable for the public. Once such interests are obtained, those lands 
also become a part of the Trail. These interests in non-Federal lands 
adjacent to the Initial Protection Segments should be considered in the 
more specific planning efforts carried out by those Federal agencies that 
would manage the segments, e.g., the Management Framework Plans 
prepared by the Bureau of Land Management for its resource areas. 

The 1978 study report identified broad areas (especially in Wyoming) of 
Federally-administered lands. The more detailed findings of land 
ownership, however, reveal that actual Federal holdings exist as upland 
regions along the river courses, or as scattered or "checkerboard" 
patterns with non-Federal lands along the Trail route. 

The plan has considered such intermixed Federal and private lands, but 
they do not offer a sufficient base to provide a satisfactory trail 
experience, or would be inordinately difficult to manage as separate 
pieces of the Trail. Therefore, this plan does not recognize or establish 
such scattered parcels as segments of the Trail. 

The plan establishes six Initial Protection Segments that offer the first 
opportunity for managing the Trail. Discussion of each segment is 
organized to show: 



Orientation 



Brief Historical Notes 



Vicinity Map 



Description : 



Management Potential 



A brief description of the physical setting. 

The salient important historical aspects. 

Shows the relationship of the segment to 
such items as access, land ownership and 
management potential. 

A narrative describing the route and the 
important factors for significant sites (see 
the introduction to this chapter). 

Identifies possibilities for preservation of 
resources and means of public use, including 
suggested actions to implement the plan. 



36 



The following are established as the Initial Protection Segments of the 
Trail and their general locations are shown on the Initial Protection 
Segment-Wyoming Map: 

1 - Fort Laramie 

2 - Independence Rock 

3 - Split Rock 

4 - South Pass 

5 - Dry Sandy 

6 - Lombard Ferry 

All the protection segments discussed are based on the segments and sites 
identified in the 1978 Mormon Trail Study Report. Discussion for each is 
as follows: 




THE 

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37 



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ORIENTATION 

FORT LARAMIE NATIONAL HISTORIC SITE - The fort or post was 
considered a fur trading and major outfitting point at the time the 
pioneers passed through the area. The post was converted to military 
use in the summer of 1849 and became a place where practically every 
wagon train stopped to resupply and rest. 



BRIEF HISTORICAL NOTES 

The plains half of the trip over, the pioneers arrived at Laramie ford 
vicinity June 2, 1847. Information was obtained about the sick 
detachment of the Mormon Battalion due for discharge at Santa Fe and 
here they were joined by the Contingent of Mississippi Saints that had 
wintered in Pueblo, Colorado Territory. 

They remained north of the river where they camped, rested their 
animals, reset wheels, and repaired wagons. At Fort Laramie, Brigham 
Young conferred with the inhabitants on trail matters. On June 3, they 
crossed to the south side of the river and junctioned with the Oregon 
Trail. June 4, they departed the vicinity and began the mountainous half 
of their journey. 



39 



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DESCRIPTION 

This segment consists of Fort Laramie National Historic Site, with 
potential for including some additional private adjacent lands. It includes 
the following areas: 

Site 9-1 , See non-Federal segment, page 82. 

Site 9-2 , Fort John, Wyoming (T26N; R64W;Sec.21or28) . This site is rated 
C-1. Fort John, first called Fort William, was the first private trading 
post in the Rocky Mountain area built by the American Fur Company. It 
was noted as an island of civilization in the western wilderness where 
information concerning Trail conditions could be obtained from personnel 
of the post. Brigham Young found the inhabitants friendly and 
informative. This site is a part of Fort Laramie National Historic Site, 
but its exact location is unknown. It is on the 7.5 Min. Fort Laramie 
Quad. Fort John's existence and contribution to the frontier is included 
in the interpretive story for Fort Laramie National Historic Site. Fort 
John's exact location is unknown, but this plan assumes it to be within 
Fort Laramie National Historic Site. It has national significance and is 
presumed to be administered by the National Park Service. 

Site 9-3 , Fort Laramie, Wyoming ( T26N ; R64W;Sec. 29) . This site is rated 
A-2. Fort Laramie was purchased by the U.S. Government in June 1849 
to serve as a focal point for military operations in the northen plains and 
mountains. The fort Army post figured prominently in the western 
expansion, migration, and Utah War. It is located about two miles 
west-southwest of the town of Fort Laramie and is found on the 7.5 Min. 
Fort Laramie Quad. Its restored buildings, museum and living history 
demonstrations are the principal interpretive efforts for the national 
historic site. It has national significance and is administered by the 
National Park Service. 

See subsequent site numbers, Site 9-4 thru 9-10 non-Federal segments, 
page 82 and 83. 



MANAGEMENT POTENTIAL 

There is potential at this site for the following: 

National Park Service to include the Mormon Pioneer National Historic 
Trail in its interpretive programs and talks. This could include the 
identification of the Trail's migration history, handcarts, bull boats, 
publications, and books regarding the Trail. 

Non-Federal interests to recognize and obtain appropriate interest in the 
Fort Platte Site (Wyoming 9-1) and its adjoining lands and to seek 
certification of the area as a Certified Protected Segment of the Trail. 
The National Park Service has administratively determined not to expand 
the Fort Laramie National Historic Site boundary at this time to include 
the Fort Platte Site. 

41 



The National Park Service could place an audio station, interpretive 
panel, or other interpretive device at the historic Army Iron Bridge to 

inform the public of the relationship between Fort Laramie, Fort Platte, 

the Mormon Pioneer and Oregon National Historic Trails. This action 

would require careful planning to separate the different interpretive 

themes in this fairly tight area and should be requested by the lead 
agency. 



42 



INDEPENDENCE ROCK 







ORIENTATION: 

Independence Rock Segment: This historic 7-mile segment lies between 
Independence Rock and Devil's Gate on the Sweetwater River. It includes 
4 miles along portions of an abandoned road, and 3 miles of cross-country 
Trail. Independence Rock, the site of a State historical park, derived its 
name from celebrations held here on July 4, 1830. The Sweetwater River 
funnels through the "Devil"s Gate" and nearby "Martin's Cove" is the site 
of the Mormon Handcart Disaster. Mormons used the cove to find refuge 
here from an early snowstorm in November 1856. 



BRIEF HISTORICAL NOTES: 

The rock was the most noted landmark west of Fort Laramie on the 
Oregon Trail. Clayton described "Independence Rock and ford--on the 
north side of the rivei — about six hundred yards long, and a hundred 
and twenty wide, composed of soft granite. . ." They nooned at the 
rock where they clambered around the dome, then moved on to Devil's 
Gate where they climbed the cliff and fired off guns in the gorge to 
create echoes.. They camped in the vicinity of Devil's Gate the evening 
of June 21, 1847. 



43 



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DESCRIPTION 

This segment is anchored on the eastern end by Independence Rock State 
Historic Site, administered by the State of Wyoming. 

Sites 10-1 to 10-7 , See non-Federal segments, pages 83-85. 

The eastern end of the established segment begins at the edge of State 
lands and proceeds southwesterly for about three miles over land 
administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). This potential 
hiking and horseback route generally parallels State Highway 220. The 
western half of this route follows the abandoned right-of-way of the old 
highway which follows the original Trail. 

Within this segment, there are stretches where sections of State and 
private land lie between the Federal lands. There is the possibility that 
here an agreement could be reached with the State and private land 
owners to incorporate this portion of non-Federal land into the segment. 
This would enable Trail users to continue their trek southerly and 
westerly through a saddle of State lands and to arrive at: 

Site 10-8 , Devil's Gate, Wyoming (T29N ; R87W; Sec . 35) . Rated A-1 , 
Devil's Gate is a spectacular landmark 360 feet high on the Mormon 
Pioneer Trail. The area was a noted emigrant campground and was used 
later as a mail relay, transcontinental telegraph, and mule pack train 
station. The site is situated some fifteen miles northeast of Muddy Gap, 
Wyoming, and is found on the Independence Rock 7.5 Min. Quad. The 
BLM maintains a 10-acre interpretive area here. Existing facilities include 
a short access road from Highway 220; a parking area; fence; 
interpretive displays about the Oregon Trail and Devil's Gate; and a 
Vmile interpretive trail with displays about the Sweetwater River, 
Martin's Cove, Indian legends, the Oregon Trail, the Devil's Gate Mail 
Station, and pioneer hardships. The Devil's Gate site is of national 
significance and is suitable for continuing administration by the BLM. It 
is the western terminus of this Federal segment. 

Site 10-9 , Martin's Cove, Wyoming (T29N; R87W;Sec.28). This site is 
rated B-2. The cove is a recess in the southern flank of the Sweetwater 
Rocks where a part of Captain Edward Martin's 6th Company from England 
took shelter from a November 1856 winter storm. Among the company of 
576 aged persons and children, the fatalities numbered 145 from exposure 
and want of food. It is located about two miles northwest of the BLM 
Devil's Gate Interpretive Area on the 7.5 Min. Independence Rock Quad. 
This site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places and is of 
national significance and is on land administered by the BLM. The actual 
access to Martin's Cove is across private lands of the Sun Ranch and 
permission is required from the owners to visit the cove. Martin's Cove 
access is a potential Trail enhancement feature and access to the cove 
should be explored in a coordinated manner between public and private 
interests. 



45 



MANAGEMENT POTENTIAL 

The Independence Rock segment offers great potential for cooperative 
efforts among Federal, State and private interests to effectively manage 
the Trail. This potential includes: 

About seven miles of hiking/horseback trail from Independence Rock State 
Historic Site to Devil's Gate. (Motorized use should be prohibited.) 

Agreements between BLM and the State of Wyoming and private interests 
for coordinating management of the above-mentioned hiking trail. 

Agreement between the lead Federal agency and the historic Tom Sun 
Ranch to make other important places available to the public, including 
the historic markers on the old highway (now a private ranch road), the 
site of the old Seminoe trading post, and other historic features. 

Perhaps obtaining necessary private land interests to protect the site of 
the emigrants' first crossing of the Sweetwater, located just east of the 
Independence Rock State property. 

Preservation of segments of Trail ruts. 

Trailheads at Independence Rock and at Devil's Gate. 

Possible interpretive displays at Independence Rock and additional 
displays at the existing Devil's Gate Interpretive Area. 

Coordination with interpretive efforts for the Oregon National Historic 
Trail. 

Potential implementing actions include : 

Continued maintenance by BLM of the existing Devil's Gate Interpretive 
Area. 

Incorporating specific measures for managing use and classifying trail 
conditions of the segment for Trail rut preservation, and for interpretive 
means into the Sweetwater Planning Unit Management Framework Plan for 
the BLM Lander Resource Area. 

BLM to explore if the opportunity exists to obtain public access across 

State lands to connect the Devil's Gate Interpretive Area with other 

historic aspects of the area, and with the Devil's Gate natural feature 
itself. 

Installing appropriate Trail markers, interpretive and informational 
devices, and trailheads. 



46 



SPLIT ROCK 



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ORIENTATION 

The Federal lands in this segment include an interpretive area, the site 
of a Pony Express Station, and visible wagon ruts all on the south side 
of the Sweetwater River. Split Rock itself is publicly owned and is 
considered a disjointed part of this Federal segment. 



BRIEF HISTORICAL NOTES 

The pioneers departed Devil's Gate Camp the morning of June 22 and 
entered into the segment. They passed and noted Split Rock in the early 
afternoon. The wagons traveled another nine miles before camping. The 
valley route provided both good grass and water; however, many fords 
and narrow tributaries forced the pioneers to leave the valley floor to go 
around hills on the valley's edge. As they traveled, they were able 
to see the great snows of the Wind River Range which offered spectacular 
views. 



47 















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DESCRIPTION 

This segment, rather than being linear in configuration, consists of about 
160 acres surrounding: 

Site 10-10 , Split Rock Interpretive Area, Wyoming (T29N ; R90W;Sec.25). 
This site is rated A-1 . Split Rock itself is about two miles north across 
intervening Federal and private lands. In this segment, the Bureau of 
Land Management has an interpretive site with an access road, parking, 
picnic tables, comfort station, and interpretive displays with a view of 
the Sweetwater River and of Sweetwater Rocks beyond. The 
interpretation presently concentrates on the Oregon Trail, geology of 
Split Rock, and the Pony Express. The site is located on the Split Rock 
7.5 Min. Quad. The interpretive area needs to have the Mormon Pioneer 
National Historic Trail story added to its interpretive displays. The 
importance of Split Rock as a landmark to pioneer travelers and the 
existing Federal ownership of the interpretive area makes this segment of 
national significance. It should continue to be administered by the 
Bureau of Land Management. 

Site 10-11 , Split Rock, Wyoming (T29N; R89W;Sec.18). This site is rated 
A-1. Split Rock is a famous natural landmark located in the Sweetwater 
Rocks. The cleft in the top was used by Indians, trappers, and 
emigrants and was noted in many diaries. It is about 10 miles 
northwesterly from Three Forks, Wyoming, and is located on the 7.5 Min. 
Split Rock Quad. The site is presently undeveloped but has potential for 
limited recreation use if access can be gained across private lands. 
Because it was an important landmark, it is judged to have national 
significance. The property is federally owned and has the necessary 
amount of land to protect the site. The site is managed by the Bureau of 
Land Management. Perhaps the private land owner would agree to 
provide access to the site for future side trail development. 



MANAGEMENT POTENTIAL 

There is potential in this segment for the following: 

Interpretation of the Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail, and 
coordinating this interpretation with efforts and actions for the Oregon 
National Historic Trail. 

Extend interpretive Trail to take in the site of the Sweetwater River area 
and the nearby Trail wagon ruts. 

Maintaining the historic interests in Split Rock and to preserve the 
geological landmark. 

Monitor public needs for additional development at the Split Rock 
Interpretive Area. 



49 



Potential implementing actions include : 

Installation of appropriate interpretive display panels to tell the story of 
Mormon pioneers passing this spot, and to relate the site to the entire 
Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail. 

Installing appropriate Trail marker, interpretive and informational 
devices, and trailhead. 



50 



SOUTH PASS 




ORIENTATION 

This 16-mile (27-km) segment is a remote and primitive portion of the 
Trail containing untouched trail remnants that remain visible for many 
miles. The Trail provides unimproved travel from the Sweetwater River, 
primarily across public domain lands to the South Pass Exhibit Site on 
U.S. Highway 28. The Continental Divide, Meeker-Whitman Historic 
Monument and Pacific Springs are prominent features. 



BRIEF HISTORICAL NOTES 

The pioneers entered the segment on June 26, 1847, and were 790 miles 
from Winter Quarters when they made the ninth and final fording of the 
Sweetwater. After traveling seven miles beyond this, they passed 
between twin mounds signaling their entry into Oregon territory. They 
also crossed a notable landmark—South Pass. The emigrants were 
experiencing a sickness they named mountain fever, believed by some 
historians to be Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever. Their last campsite in 
the Atlantic drainage was made on June 26 in an area just east of the 
Divide. The next day they crossed over the Continental backbone to the 
Pacific slope and departed the segment. 



51 






















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DESCRIPTION 

The eastern end of this segment begins in T28N; R100W;Section 26, on the 
westerly side of the Sweetwater River at the edge of Burnt Ranch. 

Sites 11-1 to 11-3 , See non-Federal segment, page 85. 

The segment then continues on public (BLM) lands southwesterly and 
westerly for about six miles on a gravel road to the vicinity of Twin 
Mounds. The Seminoe Cutoff of the Oregon Trail connects here. Just 
beyond Twin Mounds was the approximate location of the Mormon June 26 
campsite. There is potential for marking the hiking/horseback route here 
because the National Historic Trail veers south about one-half mile and 
west about two miles to skirt around private lands, including the Twin 
Mounds. The route then extends west another one and one-half miles to: 

Site 11-4 , South Pass, Wyoming (T27N; R101W;Sec.4). This site is rated 
A-1 . It is the famous crossing of the Continental Divide, at 7,550' 
elevation, making it the second highest point along the Trail. It was 
noted for its gentle grade, making for an easy covered wagon opportunity 
to cross the backbone of the Rocky Mountains from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific slope. It is a national historic landmark. The Meeker-Whitman 
marker is located here. The area is about four miles due east of State 
Highway 28 and is shown on the Pacific Springs Quad. There is good 
potential for marking the Trail and for an interpretive sign here. The 
interpretation should include the Mormon Pioneer and Oregon National 
Historic Trails, and the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail. The 
site is of national significance and is administered by the Bureau of Land 
Management. 

The trail proceeds westerly for about two and one-half miles to: 

Site 11-5 , See non-Federal segment, page 86. 

Here the Trail again deviates from the historical alignment about one-half 
mile south and about two miles southwesterly to avoid private lands. At 
this point, a connection may be made to Highway 28 where there is a 
South Pass exhibit. The segment proceeds on about five miles 
southwesterly along the gravel road over public (BLM) lands to connect 
with the highway. It should be noted that in many places this segment 
has well-preserved wagon ruts. The segment ends at the highway. 

MANAGEMENT POTENTIAL 

There is potential in this segment for the following: 

Approximately 10-15 miles of hiking/horseback trail from the Burnt Ranch 
boundary to beyond Pacific Springs. (Motorized use should be 
prohibited. ) 

Preservation of significant segments of Trail ruts. 

56 



Extend the Trail easterly to Burnt Ranch. 

Interpretive signs or other devices to identify the Mormon Pioneer 
National Historic Trail in the vicinity of South Pass. 

Investigate potential for establishing Trail continuity by connecting Trail 
easterly from Burnt Ranch towards Willy's Handcart site and Ice Slough, 
and westerly connecting with Little Sandy segment. 

Coordination of preservation and interpretive effort with a 125-mile 
segment of the Oregon National Historic Trail. 

Coordination of interpretive effort at South Pass with the Continental 
Divide National Scenic Trail. 

There is the opportunity for future addition of the following area to this 
segment. 

Burnt Ranch, Wyoming is the first of three parcels recommended for 
acquisition. Approximately 320 acres of ranch land acreage is needed for 
trail alignment and protection as identified on South Pass Sheet 1 of 4, 
page 52. 



Potential implementing actions include : 

Incorporating specific measures for managing use and classifying trail 
conditions of the segment, for preservation of trail ruts, and for 
interpretive efforts into the Sweetwater and Big Sandy Planning Units 
Management Framework Plans for the Lander and Big Sandy Resource 
Areas. 

Bureau of Land Management negotiation with private landowners for 
obtaining interests necessary to provide Trail continuity and to provide 
protection and interpretation. 

Installing appropriate Trail markers, interpretive and informational 
devices, and trailheads. 



57 



DRY SANDY 




ORIENTATION 

Dry Sandy Segment - Primitive roads provide access along this 16-mile 
(26-km) segment. Between False Parting of the Ways and the Little 
Sandy Crossing, the Mormons met with the famous trapper and guide, Jim 
Bridger, to discuss their route. The Trail passes the "Parting-of-the- 
Ways," a junction of the Oregon Trail with the Sublette Cutoff to Oregon 
Territory. 



BRIEF HISTORICAL NOTES 

On June 27, the pioneers, traveling between 5-foot snowbanks and mats 
of wild berries, crossed over South Pass Summit and passed onto the 
western slope and into the country of sanctuary. They camped that 
night on Dry Sandy Creek, the first creek after leaving Pacific Springs 
where they found the water brackish, no firewood, and very little grass. 

The next day they made an easy 6-mile passage over open sagebrush 
slope to parting-of-the-trails. The pioneers followed the left-hand fork 
towards Fort Bridger where, 7 miles later, they forded the Little Sandy 
Creek, met the famous Jim Bridger, and camped for the night. 



58 












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DRY SANDY INITIAL PROTECTION SEGMENT 



DESCRIPTION 

The eastern end of this segment begins at the State-maintained sign 
explaining the False Parting of the Ways at the parking pulloff along 
State Route 28. The segment extends about 3\ miles westerly and 
northwesterly where it veers about one-fourth mile south of the original 
Trail to avoid private lands. This is the point where the Mormons 
camped on June 27, 1847. The segment crosses Dry Sandy Creek in this 
vicinity and picks up the original Mormon route again about one-half mile 
further west. It follows the original Trail about one more mile 
southwesterly, then again deviates from the original trail to avoid a 
section of State lands. This deviation extends westerly about one and 
one-half miles to the east bank of Juel Creek. It follows the east side of 
the creek southwesterly for about one mile then goes southerly about 
three-fourths of a mile to rejoin the original route. This segment 
continues approximately two miles southwesterly to: 

Site 11-6 , Parting of the Ways, Wyoming (T28N; R104W;Sec.4). This site 
is rated A-2. The area marks the fork in the route where emigrants 
continuing on towards Oregon could take a shortcut across the Little 
Colorado Desert to Bear River. This 50-mile, waterless route was known 
as the Sublette or Greenwood Cutoff. Because of the lack of water, it 
did not become popular until the gold rush days. The Mormon pioneers 
continued southwest on the main route. The site is located on the 7.5 
Min. Parting of the Ways Quad. There is no interpretation of the site 
now, but there is potential for an interpretive display to be placed at 
this junction. The site has national significance but is of greater 
significance to the Oregon National Historic Trail. It should continue to 
be administered by the Bureau of Land Management. 

From Parting of the Ways, the segment continues to follow the original 
Trail route along the northern side of Dry Sandy Creek for some S\ miles 
southwesterly where it ends at private lands surrounding Little Sandy 
Station. Public access to this western terminus will be required. See 
Management Potential below for a discussion of Little Sandy Station. 

Site 11-7 , See non-Federal segment, page 86. 



MANAGEMENT POTENTIAL 

There is potential in this segment for the following: 

Approximately 15-16 miles of off-road vehicle travel across the open 
sagebrush plain along the entire segment. 

Preservation of significant segments of Trail ruts. 

Interpretive devices at the Mormon Pioneer's June 27 campsite and at 
Parting of the Ways. 



62 



Coordination of preservation and interpretive efforts with the coinciding 
segment of the Oregon National Historic Trail. 

Obtaining appropriate interests to make the following private lands a part 
of the segment: 

Site 11-7 , Little Sandy Station, Wyoming is the second of three parcels 
recommended for acquisition. Approximately 160 acres should be acquired 
to provide trail continuity and historic interpretation. See Dry Sandy 
Sheet 3 of 3, page 61. 



Potential implementing actions include : 

Incorporating specific measures in the Big Sandy Planning Unit 
Management Framework Plan for the Bureau of Land Management Rock 
Springs District's Big Sandy Resource Area to manage use and classify 
Trail conditions of the segment, preserve Trail ruts and provide 
interpretation . 

Withdrawing appropriate lands in the segment from mineral entry, 
including the vicinity of the Parting of the Ways. 

Marking an Off Road Vehicle route through the segment, or indicating 
such a route on appropriate maps available to the public. 

Installing other appropriate Trail markers and interpretive devices. 



63 



LOMBARD FERRY 






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ORIENTATION 

The emphasis for this segment is the Mormon Ferry crossing of the Green 
River. The actual ferry site is located some 25 miles southwest of 
Farson, over a County gravel road. 



BRIEF HISTORICAL NOTES 

From June 30 to July 2, 1847, the Mormons camped on the Green River 
and floated their wagons across. The enterprising Mormons later 
established a commercial ferry service at this important river crossing on 
the Mormon Pioneer and Oregon National Historic Trails. 



64 



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NATIONAL HISTORIC TRAIL 



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LOMBARD FERRY INITIAL PROTECTION SEGMENT 

DESCRIPTION 

This segment begins at a point about 22 miles southwesterly from Farson, 
Wyoming, at the County road. It extends from the road about 3/4 mile 
southwesterly to a point where Federal and private lands intersect. From 
this intersection the segment deviates to cross at a section corner and 
continues across the Little Colorado Desert southwesterly about 1-1/2 
miles, entering the Seedskadee National Wildlife Refuge and crossing \ 
mile of the refuge to arrive at: 

Site 12-1 , Lombard Ferry, Wyoming (T22N ; R109W:Sec.18) . This site is 
rated B-1 . Named for the Lombard Buttes, west of Green River, the 
Mormon pioneers built rafts and floated their wagons across the river. 
Later in 1847, the Mormons built ferryboats and provided a commercial 
ferry service for travelers on the Mormon-Oregon Trail. The site is 
located on the 7.5 Min. Thoman School Quad. The area is undeveloped, 
but there is potential for a hiking trail from the road down to the ferry 
site. Development and public use of the national wildlife refuge would 
have to be carefully controlled to avoid conflicts with migratory birds and 
waterfowl habitat. There may be the possibility for providing an 
interpretive site along the road at the edge of the refuge, outside the 
segment. Because of the importance of the ferry crossing to emigrants, 
it is considered of national significance. The site should continue to be 
managed by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 

The segment continues across the Green River and then turns southward 
to the refuge boundary for about \ mile, ending at the boundary of lands 
administered by the Fish and Wildlife Service in T22N; R109W; N 1 - 2 Sec. 18. 

Sites 12-2 to 12-5 , See non-Federal segments, pages 86-87. 

MANAGEMENT POTENTIAL 

There is potential in this segment for the following: 

A trailhead along the road and about two miles of hiking trail, providing 
a representative desert hiking experience. 

Obtain appropriate interests for access across private lands. 

An interpretive display at the ferry site. 

An overlook and interpretive display outside the segment along the road. 

Coordinating interpretation with the Oregon National Historic Trail. 

The opportunity for connecting the segment with the proposed State 
highway from Farson to State Highway 372. 



66 



Potential implementing actions include : 

Marking the Trail across the Bureau of Land Management lands and the 
National Wildlife Refuge. 

There would be no further actions to accommodate public use of the 
Seedskadee National Wildlife Refuge (according to Captain Bonneville, the 
Green River in Crow Indian language was "Seeds-ke-dee Agie" meaning 
"Prairie Chicken River") until the Fish and Wildlife Service completes its 
master plan for the refuge. The above listed potential management and 
development actions should be considered by the Fish and Wildlife Service 
in preparing its master plan. 

Cooperative agreement between the Bureau of Land Management and the 
Fish and Wildlife Service to coordinate and complement each agency's 
management of portions of the segment. 

The Bureau of Land Management to incorporate specific measures into the 
Big Sandy Planning Unit Management Framework Plan for the BLM Rock 
Springs District's Big Sandy Resource Area for managing use and 
classifying Trail conditions of the segment, for preservation of Trail ruts, 
and for providing a trailhead. 

BLM negotiation with private landowners for obtaining interests as 
necessary for access across private lands to provide Trail continuity 
along the original Trail. 

BLM installation of markers, and of interpretive display at the eastern 
trailhead . 



67 



POTENTIAL CERTIFIED PROTECTED SEGMENTS 

The sites discussed in this portion of the comprehensive plan are State, 
local, or privately-owned. These sites are recommended by the planning 
team and upon agreement by the owners may become Certified Protected 
Segments of the Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail. Application must 
be made by the owner and certification is done by the Secretary (see 
Appendix D for certification criteria and Appendix E for sample 
application form). 

Section 3(c) of the Act provides that "certified" National Historic Trails 
must be administered "without expense to the United States." Owners of 
non-Federal sites using Federal funding assistance for development should 
thus complete development or otherwise assure that no further Federal 
assistance is needed before requesting certification. 

In the case of State or local government-owned sites, such application 
would be pursuant to a cooperative agreement with the Secretary. In the 
case of privately-owned sites, the application for certification would 
constitute the agreement by the landowner as to proper protection and 
public use of the site. Owners may request certification of other sites 
and segments that are not listed in this section. 

The same priority designations (A-1, etc.) used in the preceding Federal 
section have been used here for recommended certification. 

Certification of protected segments places a responsibility on the site 
owner for proper stewardship and appropriate use. Inclusion of State 
and local sites as part of the Trail will serve as strong justification for 
future funding by State legislatures for operation and maintenance of 
publicly-owned sites. 

The following are sites along the Trail having significant historical or 
recreational values. Detailed information is provided about each site. 
The status and planning proposals made by the study team for the 
protection, interpretation, and development are described. 



68 



ILLINOIS 




OVERVIEW 

The Mormon Pioneer Trails' dramatic start is at Nauvoo, a former Sauk 
and Fox Indian village located on the east bank of the Mississippi River. 
Under the leadership of Brigham Young, the original emigrant group 
launched their exodus February 4, 1846, making the crossing by ferry to 
the Iowa shore. The ferry landing at Nauvoo is marked by a stone 
monument and memorial plaque. 



SIGNIFICANT HISTORIC SITES ALONG THE MORMON PIONEER TRAIL 
In State, Local, or Private Ownership 

Site 1-1 , Nauvoo National Historic District, Illinois (T6N ; R93;Sec.2) . 
This site is rated A-1 . It contains 1,100 acres of authentically restored 
significant homes and shops, including Brigham Young's home. The area 
is located on 7.5 Min. Nauvoo, Iowa-Illinois Quad. The restored town of 
Nauvoo contains streets, 18 restored houses, shops, and visitor center. 
The area has only limited Mormon Pioneer Trail interpretation. There are 
competitive efforts between State, local, and private interests to interpret 
the area. This is a nationally significant area, suitable for continued 
private administration by Nauvoo Restoration, Incorporated. 



69 



Site 1-2 , Nauvoo State Historic Site (formerly Nauvoo State Park), Illinois 
(T6N; R9W;Sec.1 ). Rated A-2, the area contains an original Mormon-built 
home and a sunstone from one of the pilaters from the Temple. Found on 
7.5 Min. Nauvoo, Iowa-Illinois Quad., the site is within the corporate 
limits of the town of Nauvoo. The 148-acre State property was 
established in 1948 and provides general recreation facilities. The area 
could serve as a logical publicly owned trailhead or eastern terminus for 
the Trail. The area is of state significance and is administered by the 
Illinois Department of Conservation. 

Site 1-3 , Reorganized Church of Latter Day Saints Restoration, Illinois 
(T6N ; R9W;Sec.2). The site is rated C-2. The area contains Joseph 
Smith's home, an interpretive center, and four other restored buildings. 
The site is on 7.5 Min. Nauvoo, Iowa-Illinois Quad. The site provides 
one of four interpretive centers in the area. This is of local significance 
as the group did not participate in the Trail trek. No Trail actions are 
necessary for this site. 

Site 1-4 , Ferry Boat Route, Illinois and Iowa (T6N; R9W;Sec.2). The site 
is rated C-2. The route is a diesel-driven barge-type boat operating on 
the Mississippi River between the landings in Nauvoo, Illinois, and 
Montrose, Iowa. The route is located on 7.5 Min. Nauvoo, Iowa-Illinois 
Quad. The ferry is a commercial enterprise by a private concern 
operating under a Corps of Engineers permit for interstate travel. The 
route is of local significance and should continue to be a private 
operation. Support by the lead agency in the form of a Trail brochure 
and pamphlet information concerning the time of operation, rates, and 
other supportive information should be given this operation. 

Site 1-5 , Nauvoo Landing, Illinois (T6N ; R9W;Sec.2). The site is rated 
B-1 . It marks the eastern terminus of the great migration west. It is 
located on the 7.5 Min. Nauvoo, Iowa-Illinois Quad and is owned by 
Nauvoo Restoration, Incorporated. A granite marker and bronze plaque 
and flagpole now commemorate and honor the exodus from Nauvoo of the 
pioneers. Additional Trail interpretation is planned for this location. 
This site is of national significance and could serve as a Trail information 
center operated by private non-profit interests of the Nauvoo Restoration, 
Inc., if the State fails to develop a public information center. 



70 



IOWA 




' 






OVERVIEW 

The Mormon refugees began their trek to the Missouri River in 1846 from 
Nauvoo, Illinois. They created a new travel route sometimes referred to 
as the "Brigham Young Route," so called because he and the Church 
leadership traveled over the Trail in the spring of that year while leading 
the first group of refugees across Iowa. The 300-mile route varies from 
rolling wood-covered terrain in the east to farmsteads and more open 
fields in the central region to typical prairie aspects in the western 
portions of Iowa. Very little physical evidence of the actual Trail is 
found today of the road the Mormons used. 

The route essentially commenced at the Sugar Creek Camp, where, on 
March 1, 1846, the main camp began to roll up the east side of the Des 
Moines River, forded the river near Bonaparte, then paralleled the 
southern border of Iowa to the Corydon vicinity. From there, they 
turned northward across the prairie to near Osceola, then traveled 
westward to the Council Bluff area and the Missouri River, arriving there 
on June 13, 1846. 



71 



SIGNIFICANT HISTORIC SITES ALONG THE MORMON PIONEER TRAIL 
In State, Local , or Private Ownership 

Site 1-6 , Montrose Landing, Iowa (T66N; R5W;Sec.10) . This site, rated 
A-1, is where the pioneers landed on the west shore of the Mississippi 
River during their exodus from Nauvoo in 1846. Located on the 7.5 Min. 
Nauvoo, Iowa-Illinois Quad, the landing is in the town of Montrose. 
Alternative locations to interpret the landing could be at either the 
present Riverview Park in the town itself, or the Linger Longer Rest 
Area, one mile north of Montrose. Facilities needed include access, 
parking and wayside exhibit. There may be potential for some acquisition 
if needed to accommodate such facilities. Both parks are impacted by the 
Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad track that passes near each of 
the sites. The landing site is of national significance and is suitable for 
administration by either the town of Montrose or the Lee County 
Conservation Board. 

Site 1-7 . Sugar Creek Camp, Iowa (T66N ; R6W;Sec.2). This site, rated 
C-1, is the first Camp of Israel and is notorious as a place of intense 
hardships in the spring of 1846. This site is located on the 7.5 Min. 
Nauvoo, Iowa-Illinois Quad, and is five miles west of the town of 
Montrose. The exact location is not known but the general area is now 
being used for farmland. A roadside marker and pullout are needed 
along the country road. The site is of national significance and is 
suitable for administration by the Lee County Conservation Board. 

Site 1-8 , Des Moines River Crossing, Iowa (T68N; R8W;Sec.8) . This site, 
rated A-1, is where the pioneers made their first major river crossing 
west of the Mississippi River on March 5, 1846. The crossing is shown 
on the 7.5 Min. Bonaparte, Iowa Quad, and is in the river reach adjacent 
to the city of Bonaparte. A suitable area on the east side of the river 
and north of the bridge in the city should be developed as a county or 
city unit along the Trail. Facilities needed include a river access site, 
interpretive exhibit, access road, directional signs, parking, and picnic 
shelter and tables. The area has other historical interests, including 
ruins of an old mill and river locks. The site is of national significance 
and suitable for City of Bonaparte administration or by the Lee County 
Conservation Board. 

Site 1-9 , Lacey Keosauqua State Park, Iowa (T68N ; R10W;Sec. 10,11 ,&12). 
This site is A-2. The park is the site of a later Mormon Trail river 
crossing at Ely's Ford. The park is approximately one mile south of the 
City of Keosauqua on the 7.5 Min. Keosauqua, Iowa Quad. The original 
pioneer Trail is I/2 mile south and parallel to the southern park 
boundary. The Trail needs to be interpreted within the park. Portions 
of the park are set aside as a wildlife refuge. There are private lands 
that exist between the original trail and the park itself. Acquisition in 
this area would increase the opportunity for Trail activity. This site has 
state significance and is administered by the Iowa Conservation 
Commission . 

Site 1-10 , Horse Blessed, Iowa (T68N ; R10w;Sec.2). This site, rated 
C-1, is where the first known example among Mormons of the blessing of 
a sick animal to restore its health took place. This site is seven miles 



72 



northeast of the City of Milton on Indian Creek and is on the 7.5 Min. 
Cantril, Iowa Quad. The site is presently in private ownership and 
needs only a marker along the nearest public road. The area is of state 
significance and needs no other development effort other than the erection 
and maintenance of the marker by Van Buren County. 

Site 2-1 , Chariton River Crossing, Iowa (T68N; R17W;Sec.25). This site, 
rated B-1, was a camp where the Mormon pioneers were reorganized into 
companies of 100 families which were then subdivided into fifties and 
tens. This site is about one mile west of the town of Sedan on the 15 
Min. Centerville Iowa-Missouri Quad. The historic site has potential for 
acquisition and development as a river access area, including road access 
or parking, trailhead location, riverside exhibit structure, picnic tables, 
and signs. This site is of national significance and suitable for 
administration by the Appanoose County Conservation Board. 

Site 2-2 , Come, Come Ye Saints, Iowa (T67N; R20W;Sec.4). Rated C-1, 
this site on Locust Creek is where on April 13, 1846, William Clayton 
wrote the words to the now famous Mormon hymn "Come, Come Ye 
Saints." The site is on the 15 Min. Seymore Iowa-Missouri Quad. The 
actual location is about four miles southwest of the City of Seymour. The 
site is under cultivation and in private ownership and needs only an 
interpretive marker erected on the nearest public road. The City of 
Corydon has a fine museum detailing the composition of the hymn and 
other Mormon Trail activities. The site is of national significance and the 
marker should be erected and maintained by Wayne County. 

Site 2-3 , Bob White State Park, Iowa (T68N; R22W;Sec.4&9). This site is 
rated B-2. The area is located on the original pioneer Trail and is 
suitable to provide support functions for trail retracement purposes. The 
park is about two miles west of the City of Alberton on the 7.5 Min. Clio, 
Iowa Quad. A marker is needed to inform the public of Trail activities in 
the area. The site is of state significance and is administered by the 
Iowa Conservation Commission. 

Site 2-4 , Garden Grove, Iowa (T70N; R24W;Sec.27). This site is rated 
A-1 . The grove is historically known as the first place of permanent 
habitation in the Pottawattamie Indian lands in territorial Iowa. The site 
is marked by a county park and city park and is on the 7.5 Min. Garden 
Grove, Iowa Quad, near the City of Garden Grove. The park presently 
has adequate day use facilities and a granite marker which are being 
maintained by the Decatur County Conservation Board. The site needs 
an additional exhibit to orient Trail users to the total Mormon Pioneer 
National Historic Trail plus adequate directional signs to direct visitors to 
the site. The site is of national significance and should be continued 
under present county administration. 

Site 2-5 , Mt. Pisgah, Iowa (T72N ; R28W;Sec.8) . This site is rated A-1. 
The area was maintained as a Mormon Way Station from 1846 to 1852, and 
at its height had over 2,000 inhabitants. The site is on the 15 Min. 
Afton, Iowa Quad and is now a county park, located two miles northeast 
of the town of Talmage. The site has been developed for day use 
activities. Interpretation includes markers, monuments and signs. 
Directional signing and access to the site are inadequate. Interpretive 



73 



efforts are needed to expand the present exhibits and add information 
about the entire Trail. This site is of national significance and is 
administered by the Union County Conservation Board. 

Site 2-6 , Green Valley State Park, Iowa (T73N; R31W;Sec.26). This site 
is rated C-2 and is a recreation park area located near the original 
pioneer Trail that provides both day-use and overnight facilities. The 
park is four miles north of the City of Creston. There are no 7.5 or 15 
minute quad sheets available for this area. The site could provide a 
stopover place for persons retracing the Trail. A wayside exhibit site 
and parking area are needed at this park to tell the Trail story. The 
park is of state significance and is owned and administered by the Iowa 
Conservation Commission. 

Site 3-1 , Cold Springs State Park, Iowa (T75N ; R37W;Sec. 15). This site 
is rated B-1 . The pioneer trail actually traveled through this park. The 
site is one mile south of the City of Lewis on the 7.5 Min. Lewis, Iowa 
Quad. The trail needs to be adequately marked through the park and a 
wayside exhibit or marker erected to tell the Trail's history. A 
hiking/nature trail to the East Nishnabotna River should be developed. 
Research is needed to determine where the trail went westward from the 
park. The site if of state significance and is administered by the Cass 
County Conservation Board. 

Site 3-2 , Nishnabotna River Crossing, Iowa (T74N ; R40W;Sec.21 ) . This 
site is rated C-1. The river was mentioned in nearly all the journals and 
marked the end of the difficult crossing areas in Iowa. The crossing is a 
mile west of the town of Macedonia. There are no 7.5 or 15 minute quad 
sheets available for this area. The Olde Town County Park located on 
Highway G66 would make a good interpretive site and only needs an 
exhibit or marker to interpret the Trail. The Trail needs to be 
researched and located in that area. Acquisition may be necessary to 
incorporate the Trail within the park. The area needs directional signing 
to guide visitors to the site. The area is of national significance and is 
owned and administered by the Pottawattamie County Conservation Board. 

Site 3-3 , Council Bluffs ( Kanesville), Iowa (T74N ; R43W;Sec.7&8) . This 
site is rated A-1 . Kanesville was a community used as a staging point 
for pioneers enroute to the Rocky Mountains. The enrollment of the 
historic Mormon Battalion took place here. The site is within the 
boundary of the City of Council Bluffs and is on the 7.5 Min. Council 
Bluffs, South, Iowa-Nebraska Quad. This area has been industrialized 
and impacted through urban growth and expansion. The site is probably 
not worthy of public acquisition. However, an information center is 
needed to serve as an entry point to Iowa from the west. It would be 
appropriate to locate the center at the nearby Lake Manawa State Park 
and to interpret the site from there. Kanesville is of national significance 
and no other action is recommended. 

Site 3-4 , Lake Manawa State Park, Iowa (T74N ; R44W;Sec. 13&14) . This 
site is rated A-2. This recreation area is located adjacent to both the 
original pioneer Trail and the established auto route. The park is on the 
7.5 Min. Council Bluffs, South, Iowa-Nebraska Quad. It lies one mile 
south of Interstate 80 and is within the City of Council Bluffs. The park 



74 



serves the Greater Omaha-Council Bluffs Metropolitan Area, is of state 
significance and is administered by the Iowa Conservation Commission. 
Future State plans call for a portion of the park to be city-administered. 

Site 3-5 , Mormon Ferry (Missouri River), Iowa and Nebraska 
(T74N ; R44W;Sec. 16) This site is rated C-1 and is on the east bank of 
the river, where the pioneers built a ferryboat in 1846 to cross the 
Missouri River. This site is three miles west of the small neighborhood 
park in the town of Manawa, and is located on the 7.5 Min. Omaha South, 
Nebraska-Iowa Quad. The site has been altered through channel work 
and interstate bridge construction in the vicinity. The site needs to be 
researched to verify its original location and the present land use may 
have potential for revision to accommodate historic purposes. The landing 
is of national significance and suitable for marking and administration by 
the Pottawattamie County Board or the City of Council Bluffs. 



75 



NEBRASKA 




OVERVIEW 

The Mormon pioneers crossed the Missouri River to enter the State of 
Nebraska on June 29, 1846. They established the Mormon settlement of 
Winter Quarters on the west bank in the then frontier lands of the Omaha 
Indian Nation. 

That summer, advance parties traveled as far as the Elkhorn Loup and 
Niobrara valleys in quest of desirable wintering sites. 

The pioneer trek across the State began from Winter Quarters in April 
1847. They assembled first at the "Crossing of the Elkhorn" then later 
at "Liberty Pole Camp" on the bank of the Platte near Fremont. 

The emigrants followed the broad flood plain of the Platte River to 
Columbus, turned up the Loup Fork to pass Pawnee Mission, then crossed 
the Loup River near the 98th meridan and returned to the Platte River 
near Grand Island. 



76 



To remain separated from Gentile wagon trains, Brigham Young paralleled 
the north side of the Platte measuring and recording their travel for 
future trail guidance. Upon reaching the junction of the North and South 
Forks of the Platte, they chose to move along the northern branch of the 
river where, on May 18, they found themselves opposite the camping 
grounds, "Ash Hollow". Leaving the sand hills, they passed the 
important geographic points of Chimney Rock, Courthouse Rock, and 
Scottsbluff. The wagons and pioneers departed the State on May 31 near 
Henry where they could see the snow of Laramie Peak far in the west. 



SIGNIFICANT HISTORIC SITES ALONG THE MORMON PIONEER TRAIL 
In State, Local, or Private Ownership 

Site 4-I , Winter Quarters, Nebraska (T16N ; R13E;Sec.21 ). This site is 
rated B-1 and was an important Mormon community and the place where 
the pioneer party commenced its 1847 travel. It is located in the City of 
Florence, a suburb of the Greater Omaha Metropolitan Area, and is found 
on the 7.5 Min. Omaha North, Nebr.-lowa Quad. The city has erected a 
marker in their park and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints 
has a cemetery, monuments, and a hosting center in Florence. Florence 
is the oldest city in Nebraska. It is here that the Mormon Pioneer Trail 
junctions the Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail. The area needs a 
kiosk or information center to interpret and mark the Trail and to also 
serve as a point to interpret both historic trails in Nebraska. The site is 
of national significance and is suitable for administration by the City of 
Omaha. 

Site 4-2 , Crossing of the Elkhorn River, Nebraska (T15N; R10E;Sec.15). 
This site is rated B-1 and is the first major river crossing west of the 
Missouri River. The crossing is one mile south of the town of Elkhorn 
and is on the 7.5 Min. Valley, Nebr. Quad. The Trail crossing 
encompasses both sides of the river but access and development of the 
site could best be accomplished on the river's west bank where an all 
weather road is available. Facilities needed include a riverside access 
point and a wayside exhibit. The east bank area is under cultivation, 
whereas the west bank has a parklike setting. The site is of national 
significance and is suggested for administration by Douglas County. 

Site 4-3 , Liberty Pole Camp, Nebraska (T17N; R8E;Sec.23). This site is 
rated C-1. It was an important camp where the pioneers were organized 
in military manner on April 17, 1847. The site is in the City of Fremont 
at Barnard Park and is located on the 7.5 Min. Fremont East, Nebr. 
Quad. A Trail monument is presently located in the center of the park 
along Military Road. The park is presently used for public recreation 
and is in need of more interpretive facilities. A new marker or wayside 
exhibit should be established here. The site is of national significance 
and is being administered by the City of Fremont. 

Site 4-4 , Fremont Lakes Recreation Area, Nebraska (T17N; R7E;Sec.13). 
This site is rated B-2 and is a recreation site located along the Trail 
route that provides Trail support facilities. It is located three miles west 
of the City of Fremont on the 7.5 Min. Fremont West, Nebr. Quad. 
There are no present Trail interpretive facilities and the site is a logical 

77 



place to install a wayside Trail exhibit. This site is of state significance 
and is being administered by the State of Nebraska. 

Site 5-1 , Government Indian Station, Nebraska (T17N; R5W;Sec.36). This 
site is rated B-1 and the station was the site of government houses and a 
blacksmith shop that had been burned by the Sioux in 1846. The 
pioneers obtained both plows and iron from the ruins. This site is 
located on Council Creek about one mile east of the Merchiston Village on 
the 7.5 Min. Fullerton N.E., Nebr. Quad. There are no present station 
remains or evidence of its existence. The site should be acquired and 
both interpretive and recreational facilities developed. This area is of 
national significance and suitable for administration by the State of 
Nebraska. 

Site 5-2 , Fording of the Loup River, Nebraska (T16N ; R5W;Sec.4) . This 
site is rated B-2 and is the location where the pioneers made their second 
major Nebraska river crossing on April 24, 1847. The site is about five 
miles east of the City of Fullerton on the 7.5 Min. Merchiston, Nebr. 
Quad. The area is in private ownership and is presently unmarked and 
undeveloped. This area needs to be acquired for protection and 
adequately marked to inform the public of the Loup River's importance to 
the Trail. The site is of national significance and suitable for 
administration by Nance County. 

Site 5-3 , Upper Loup River Ford, Nebraska (T15N; R8W;Sec.14). This 
site is rated C-2 and was used as a river crossing by later emigrant 
trains but was avoided by the pioneers because of a nearby Pawnee 
village. This area crossing is six miles northeast of the village of Palmer 
on the 7.5 Min. Belgrade SW, Nebr. Quad. The site is in private 
ownership, access to the area is difficult, and all important Trail values 
are lost. This site needs only to be marked on the nearest public road. 
The site is of local significance and the marker should be administered by 
Nance County. 

Site 6-1 , First sighting of White Men, Nebraska (T9N; R18W;Sec.31 ). 
This site is rated C-1 and is the area where French fur traders returning 
on the Oregon Trail from Fort Laramie crossed the river and agreed to 
carry pioneer mail back to Council Bluffs. The area is about three miles 
southwest of the village of Elm Creek on the 7.5 Min. Elm Creek West, 
Nebr. Quad. The actual location of the meeting is unconfirmed and is not 
important to the Trail management, but the event should become part of 
the Trail auto route and a highway marker and pullout should be 
developed on US 30 to identify the event. This site is of national 
significance and is suitable for administration by the State of Nebraska. 

Site 6-2 , 100th Meridian, Nebraska (T10N ; R24W;Sec. 12) . This site is 
rated C-1 and is an important topographic point on the trail. The 
meridian is located on the west side of the City of Cozad and is shown on 
the 7.5 Min. Cozad, Nebr. Quad. The site is already in public ownership 
and needs only a marker and pullout to identify the crossing of the 
longitude by the pioneers. The area is of state significance as it marked 
entry into the "Great American Desert" and is suitable for administration 
by the City of Cozad. 



78 



Site 6-3 , Willow Island, Nebraska (T11N; R24W;Sec.31&32). This site is 
rated C-1 and is where the wagons on March 5, 1847, were ordered to 
camp on an island so as to be secured from a large prairie fire. The 
island is five miles southeast of the City of Gothenburg and is located on 
the 7.5 Min. Willow Island, Nebr. Quad. The land is in private 
ownership and needs only to be interpreted with a marker and pullout 
located on US 30. The area is of local significance and the marker should 
be erected and maintained by Dawson County. 

Site 7-1 , Confluence Point, Nebraska (T13N ; R30W;Sec. 1 ) . This site is 
rated C-1 and is where the north and south forks of the Platte river 
join. The junction is five miles east of the City of North Platte on the 
7.5 Min. Maxwell SW, Nebr. Quad. This area contains good ruts. At the 
least, the site should be interpreted with a marker. It is of state 
significance and adequate for administration by Lincoln County. 

Site 7-2 , Sand Hills, Nebraska (T14N ; R33W;Sec.4) . This site is rated 
A-1 . It is one of the very few points where the pioneers had to leave 
the river to go up and around hills. This particular site is six miles 
northeast of the City of Sutherland and is located on the 7.5 Min. 
Hershey West, Nebr. Quad. This is a very pretty section of natural 
river land that has easy access and should be developed to provide 
hiking, swimming, camping, etc. These are good examples of ruts at this 
site. The site is of state significance and adequate for administration by 
Lincoln County. 

Site 7-3 , Famous Odometer Start, Nebraska (T14N ; R35W;Sec.15) . This 
site is rated B-1 and is where the machinery called a "roadometer" was 
completed in this camp and placed in use to accurately measure and mark 
the Trail. The camp was located on the 7.5 Min. Paxton North, Nebr. 
Quad, about four miles north of the town of Paxton. The exact campsite 
is unknown and is not necessary for Trail retracement purposes. The 
general area needs only to be interpreted with a roadside pullout and 
marker. The site is of national significance and is suited for 
administration by Keith County. 

Site 7-4 , Lake Ogallala Recreation Area, Nebraska (T15N; R38W;Sec.3A) . 
This site is rated B-2, and, although the actual Trail location is now 
covered by a recreation area and forebay reservoir area, the area is 
developed and would provide support facilities for Trail users. The 
recreation site is located below Lake McConaughy's Kinsley Dam on the 
7.5 Min. Ogallala, Nebr. Quad. This site is important because it offers 
easy access to the Platte River Valley and the Trail passes through the 
site. There is need for a wayside exhibit to tell of the Trail's 
significance and to mark the Trail where it crosses the State property. 
The site is of state significance and is under the administration of the 
State Game and Parks Commission. 

Site 7-5 , Ash Hollow Historic Place, Nebraska (T16N ; R42W;Sec.34) . This 
site is rated B-1. The hollow is on the south side of the North Platte 
River and was noted as the spot where the Oregon Trail struck the 
river. The Mormon pioneers used the location to determine their position 
on the Trail. The Ash Hollow Historic Site has been developed by the 
State and is situated about two miles southeast of Lewellen Village on the 



79 



7.5 Min. Ruthton, Nebr. Quad. A marker needs to be placed opposite 
the historic site along US 26 on the north side of the North Platte River 
to interpret the Pioneer Trail at this point. The area is of state 
significance and is suitable for administration by Garden County. 

Site 8-1 , Indian Lookout Point, Nebraska (T18N; R46W;Sec.19). The 
point, climbed by several pioneers, is rated A-1 and is a prominent 
features on the north side of the North Platte River. This site is 14 
miles east of the City of Bridgeport near the Morrill-Garden County line 
on the 7.5 Min. Tar Valley SW, Nebr. Quad. The site is in private 
ownership and the bluff area needs only to be marked with a roadside 
pullout and historic marker. The point is of local significance and is 
suitable for administration by Morrill County. 

Site 8-2 , Ancient Bluff Ruins, Nebraska (T19N; R47W;Sec.32). This site 
is rated A-1 and is the most dramatic and extensive bluff formation on the 
Trail in Nebraska. The site is five miles southeast of the City of 
Broadwater on the 7.5 Min. Broadwater, Nebr. Quad. The area is 
unmarked and difficult to find. Samples of trail ruts are found near this 
site. The site should be acquired and a trailhead, foot trail, and 
interpretive facilities developed. The site is of national significance and 
should be administered by the State of Nebraska. 

Site 8-3 , Rebecca Winters Grave, Nebraska (T22N ; R54W;Sec.30). This 
site is rated B-2. The grave is symbolic of cholera deaths along the 
Trail and of the hardships of pioneer women. The site is three miles east 
of Scottsbluff on the north side of the Burlington Railroad. A historical 
marker and roadside rest have been developed along US 30 near the site. 
Access to the gravesite needs to be improved and the grave and wayside 
need to be tied into the Trail through greater expansion of the existing 
facilities. The area is on the 7.5 Min. Minatare, Nebr. Quad, and is of 
state significance and should continue to be administered by the State of 
Nebraska. 



80 



WYOMING 




OVERVIEW 

The pioneers entered Wyoming Territory June 1, 1847, and camped in the 
vicinity of Fort Laramie (Ft. Williams) where they were joined by the 
Mississippi Branch of Latter-Day Saints. After conferring with the fort's 
inhabitants about trail conditions, they forded the North Platte River and 
continued west following the Oregon Trail to the Casper area where they 
established the Mormon Ferry to recross the river. 

They departed the North Platte to continue overland to the Sweetwater 
River and Independence Rock. The pioneers then proceeded up that 
drainage to cross the Continental Divide at South Pass. In the Pacific 
drainage, they followed the Big Sandy and its tributary to the Green 
River. 

Leaving the Green River Valley in the west, the Trail continued along the 
Oregon Trail to Fort Bridger, then continued along the Donner-Reed 
Trail, crossing the Bear River and departed the state in the Needles 
vicinity. 



81 



SIGNIFICANT HISTORIC SITES ALONG THE MORMON PIONEER TRAIL 
In State, Local, or Private Ownership 

Site 9-1 , Fort Platte, Wyoming (T26N; R64W;Sec.22). This site is rated 
B-1 . The fort ruins were visited and measured by the pioneers. 
Located on 7.5 Min. Fort Laramie, Wyo. Quad., the site is approximately 
one mile west of the town of Ft. Laramie on the west bank of the North 
Platte River. A granite marker and bronze plaque are located on the 
north side of Highway 160 to designate the site. A new wayside exhibit 
and adequate parking are needed. The fort site is in present 
agricultural use and parking along the highway creates a safety problem. 
The area is of national significance and is suitable for administration by 
Goshen County. 

Site 9-2 , See Initial Protection Segment, page 41. 

Site 9-3 , See Initial Protection Segement, page 41. 

Site 9-4 , Register Cliff, Wyoming (T26N; R65W;Sec.7) . This site is rated 
B-1. It is a prominent cliff area on the south bank of the North Platte 
River where Oregon Trail emigrants stopped and carved their names. 
The site is on the 7.5 Min. Register Cliff, Wyo. Quad, and is situated 
two miles southeast of Guernsey. The site contains a gravel access road 
and parking area, interpretive markers, and footpath to ruts. The fence 
protecting the names is erected too close to the cliffs and allows 
desecration of the markings. The site is of state significance and both 
Register Cliff and trail ruts belong to the State and are administered as 
an historic area. 

Site 9-5 , Oregon-Mormon Trail Ruts, Wyoming (T26N; R66W;Sec.2). This 
site is rated B-1 and is a noted and very distinctive Trail feature where 
deep wagon ruts have been cut into the soft rock. This site is on the 
7.5 Min. Guernsey, Wyo. Quad., one mile south of Guernsey. Facilities 
include road access, parking, hiking trail, benches, and interpretive 
markers. The markers are related only to the Oregon Trail. The 
markers should also be redone to tell of the Mormon Pioneer Trail. A 
hiking trail between Register Cliff and the ruts should be developed. 
This site is of state significance and is a State-administered area. 

Site 9-6 , Guernsey Reservoir, Wyoming (T27N; R66W;Sec. various) . This 
site is rated B-2 and the 2,386-acre water surface lake, completed in 1927 
by the Bureau of Reclamation, has recreation facilities which are operated 
by the State of Wyoming. The site is four miles northwest of Guernsey 
and is shown on the 7.5 Min. Guernsey Reservoir, Wyo. Quad. Facilities 
are available for camping, picnicking, boating, hiking, horseback riding 
and field sports. The site contains a museum, power plant, and service 
residences and building. There is need for Trail interpretive facilities. 
The lake is drawn down in the middle of the recreation season which 
reduces much of the water-oriented activities. The area is of state 
significance and is administered by the Wyoming Recreation Commission as 
a State park. 

Site 9-7 , Warm Springs Canyon, Wyoming (T26N ; R66W;Sec.4) . This site 
is rated A-1 . This site was prominent on the Oregon Trail as the 



82 



emigrants' natural laundry tub and was mentioned by the Mormons. It is 
situated four miles southwest of Guernsey on the 7.5 Min. Guernsey 
Reservoir, Wyo. Quad. There are no immediate impacts to the area and 
the area needs only a parking area and interpretive facilities. The site 
is of local significance and suitable for administration by its present 
private owner. 

Site 9-8, Porter's Rock, Wyoming (T27N; R67W;Sec.27) . This site is rated 
C-1 and it is alleged that Mormon pioneer Porter Rockwell carved his 
name there in I847, hence its designation. The site is on the 7.5 Min. 
Herman Ranch, Wyo. Quad, and is eight miles northwest of Guernsey. 
The rock is on private ranch land. A small marker along the county road 
is needed to identify the area. The carvings should be protected. This 
site is of local significance and should remain in private ownership and 
protection . 

Site 9-9 , Hewer's Spring, Wyoming (T29N; R68W;Sec.20) . This site is 
rated C-1 and the spring was named after Mormon pioneer Heber C. 
Kimball who found the spring. Located on 7.5 Min. Sibley Peak, Wyo. 
Quad., the spring is nine miles southwest of Glendo on Horseshoe Creek. 
There is some doubt by authorities as to the exact location of this 
spring. Access to the site is via local ranch roads. Both directional 
signs and an interpretive sign are needed. This site is of local 
significance and is suitable for Platte County administration. 

Site 9-10 , Ayres Natural Bridge, Wyoming (T32N; R73W;Sec.12&21 ). This 
site is rated C-1, and, in 1847, some Mormon pioneers visited and 
described this famous topographic feature. Located 10 miles west of 
Douglas, this park site is on the 7.5 Min. La Prele Reservoir, Wyo. 
Quad. Recreation features include picnicking, camping, sanitation and 
access trail to La Prele Reservoir for fishing. The natural stone arch is 
formed by the river cutting through a high rocky bluff. The present 
area is suitable for use as a stop-over point on the Trail which runs one 
mile north of the park. A marker should be placed both at the park and 
at the Trail. The site is of state significance and is administered by 
Converse County. 

Site 10-1 , Upper Platte Ferry and Ford, Wyoming (T33N; R79W;Sec.7). 
This site is rated B-1 and is on the 7.5 Min. Casper, Wyo. Quad. In 
1847, the Mormon pioneers obtained timber from the nearby mountains to 
build and operate a ferry across the river for money and provisions. 
The site is located within the City of Mills at Lat. 42'50'18". The actual 
site has been impacted with the Izaak Walton Park on the south bank and 
industrial park on the north bank. A monument to the ferry site has 
been erected at Fort Caspar about 300 yards south of the crossing. 
There are some thoughts that the actual ferry crossing was located about 
four miles further downriver. This downstream site is in a Caspar city 
park area. The ferry site location needs to be resolved. The area will 
need access, markers, and a short walking trail. The site is of national 
significance and suitable for local administration. 

Site 10-2 , Emigrant Gap, Wyoming (T33N; R8IW;Sec. 10) . This site is 
rated B-1 and is located on 7.5 Emigrant Gap, Wyo. Quad. The site is a 
gap in the hills where emigrant wagons left the North Platte River Valley 



83 



and started cross-country to the Sweetwater River. Located 12 miles west 
of Casper, the gap area is rapidly being encroached with housing units. 

A roadside turnout and historical marker are needed along with limited 
land acquisition to protect this site. This site is of local significance 
suitable for county administration. 

Site 10-3 , Avenue of Rocks, Wyoming (T32N; R82W;Sec.16). This site is 
rated B-1 and was a prominent feature mentioned by the Mormon pioneers 
as the place where the Trail passed between high rocks which formed a 
gateway or avenue. The site is located on the 7.5 Min. Clarkson, Wyo. 
Quad., and is 20 air miles southwest of Caspar. A roadside parking area 
and descriptive marker are needed at this site sometimes called "The 
Devil's Backbone." This one-quarter mile stretch of Trail has been 
impacted by both pipeline and road construction which have chipped away 
at the rocks. The area is of local significance and suitable for 
administration by the State of Wyoming. 

Site 10-4 , Willow Springs, Wyoming (T31N; R83W;Sec.9). This site is 
rated B-1 and was the first good, clear, cool water encountered by the 
pioneers after leaving the North Platte River. It consequently was a 
popular camping spot for Mormon trains that followed. The spring is 
located on the 7.5 Min. Benton Basin NE, Wyo. Quad., and is about 8.5 
miles north of Alcova alongside the existing Oregon Trail County Road. 
The spring and ranch yard comprise approximately ten acres. The ranch 
is vacant and buildings have deteriorated. A wayside exhibit, plus 
camping, picnicking, parking, and trailhead facilities, are needed. The 
site should be developed in conjunction with Prospect Hill (Site 10-5). 
Acquisition by exchange is recommended. Nomination of the site to the 
National Register is pending approval. The area is of local significance 
and should be administered by the State of Wyoming. 

Site 10-5 , Prospect Hill, Wyoming (T31N; R83N;Sec.8). This site is rated 
B-1. The site has clearly visible ruts up the eastern slope of Prospect 
Hill with an almost identical view from the top of the hill as that view 
which greeted the pioneer company on June 20, 1847. The hill is about 
one mile from the foot to the top and was considered by the pioneers as 
having a pretty steep ascent. The site is on the 7.5 Min. Benton Basin 
NE, Wyo. Quad., and is adjacent to Willow Springs (Site 10-4). 
Approximately 1,000 acres are needed to preserve the existing rut 
remnants. Interpretive markers and Trail facilities are needed. Road 
maintenance and rut protection are problems that will result from 
increased visitor use. Acquisition of interest in the land will require 
lease, land exchanges or purchase. The area is of national significance 
and suitable for administration by the State of Wyoming. 

Site 10-6 , Pathfinder Reservoir, Wyoming (T30N ; R85W;Sec. various) . This 
site is rated C-2, and the dam is one of the oldest structures built by 
the Bureau of Reclamation. It is located on the 7.5 Min. Sanford Ranch, 
Wyo. Quad. The 22,600-acre water surface lake and adjacent lands near 
the dam are administered as a county park by Natrona County. Day use 
and overnight park facilities are provided in support of boating and other 
water-oriented activities. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service administers 
Pathfinder National Wildlife Refuge, which is located in the upper reaches 



84 



of the reservoir. The Mormon Pioneer Trail crosses about one mile of 
Federal lands on the northwest side of the refuge. Other than Trail 
right-of-way and markers, no other facilities are needed. This Trail 
section is of state significance and is suitable for administration by the 
State of Wyoming. 

Site 10-7 , Independence Rock, Wyoming (T29N; R86W;Sec.9). This site is 
rated A-1 and is an important major landmark on the Trail. Many old 
names are carved on this "Register of the Desert," which extends 1,900 
feet in length, 700 feet in width, and rises 128 feet above the valley 
floor. The site is located on the 7.5 Min. Independence Rock, Wyo. 
Quad., and is administered by the Wyoming Recreation Commission as a 
State Historic Site. Present facilities include access road, parking, 
interpretive markers, and protective fence. This site should provide 
hiking trails, better interpretation and increased protection measures. 
The rock could become the logical eastern trailhead for the established 
Independence Rock Initial Protection Segment. This area is of national 
significance and is administered by the State. 

Sites 10-8 and 10-9 , See Initial Protection Segment, page 45. 

Sites 10-10 and 10-11 , See Initial Protection Segment, page 49. 

Site 11-1 , Ice Slough, Wyoming (T30N; R39W;Sec.32). This site is rated 
B-1. Ice Slough was a pioneer ice source. This phenomenon was noted 
by Clayton and many others who passed where pure ice could be obtained 
by digging below the spring. It is about 31 miles westerly from Three 
Forks, Wyoming, via U.S. 287 and is on the 7.5 Min. Myers Ranch Quad. 
The spring itself is privately owned but the State of Wyoming maintains a 
parking pulloff and an interpretive sign explaining the historic use of the 
spring. The site is of state significance. The interpretive sign should 
continue to be administered by the State. The sign would be suitable for 
affixing the Trail logo to it. 

Site 11-2 , Willie's Handcart Disaster Site, Wyoming (T29N; R99W;Sec.35). 
This site is rated B-2 because it is the disaster site on Rock Creek where 
77 Mormons, in 1856, perished due to an early snowstorm. It is located 
on the 7.5 Min. Radium Springs, Wyo. Quad. The site is on private 
property and a stone marker and bronze plaque, dated June 23, 1933, 
has been installed by the Utah Pioneer Trails and Landmark Association to 
mark the burial site. Adequate road directional signs to the cemetery are 
needed. The site is of national significance and is in private ownership. 

Site 11-3 , Burnt Ranch, Wyoming (T28N; R100W;Sec.26,NE\i NE 1 *). This 
site is rated C-2. This area was an important place for communicating 
with the Mormon community at Salt Lake City; it was a Mormon Mail 
Station. The area is the location of the ninth and final crossing of the 
Sweetwater River by the pioneers. The Lander Cutoff of the Oregon 
Trail connects here, and there are graves nearby important to the Oregon 
National Historic Trail. The site is about ten miles due east of South 
Pass and is shown on the Atlantic City Quad. Facilities include road 
access from the north via South Pass City and by a ranch road from the 
south. There is no connection between the two roads across the river. 
There is potential for a trailhead here and the opportunity for visitors to 

85 



ford the river just as the pioneers did. There is the future possibility 
of further connection with the trail easterly to Ice Slough if public access 
can be gained across private lands. For now, Burnt Ranch offers the 
potential of an eastern terminus for a 10 to 15 mile hiking or horseback 
route, and could be marked as such. The area is of medium significance 
as far as the Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail is concerned, but has 
greater significance for the Oregon National Historic Trail. For that 
reason, it has national significance. It is now privately owned but has 
the potential for acquisition by exchange. The present owner has 
approached BLM for such a proposal. The site has been nominated to the 
National Register of Historic Places. 

Site 11-4 , See Initial Protection Segment, page 56. 

Site 11-5 , Pacific Springs, Wyoming (T27N ; R102W;Sec.1 ). The site is 
rated A-1 . This was the first water the pioneers encountered upon 
arriving on the Pacific Slope. It was an important stoping place for later 
emigrant trains, and the Mormons also established a station there. The 
site is just east of Highway 28 and is on the Pacific Springs Quad. 
There is opportunity for marking the Trail and for interpretive signing 
here, particularly for the Oregon National Historic Trail. Because of its 
importance to the wagon trains, the Springs area is considered of national 
significance. The area is privately owned; thus, there is the potential 
for acquisition by exchange to obtain appropriate land interests and to 
manage the site, or for private land owners to participate in the Trail 
effort via the certification procedures. 

Site 11-6 , See Initial Protection Segment, page 62. 

Site 11-7, Little Sandy Station, Wyoming (T26N, R105W;Sec.28). This site 
is rated A-1. Here the Mormon pioneers camped on the banks of Little 
Sandy Creek, June 28, 1847, and met Jim Bridger who gave the pioneers 
valuable advice on the route ahead and his opinions concerning lands 
suitable for settlement. The site is found on the 7.5 Min. Eden Reservoir 
Quad. There is potential for an interpretive display here telling the 
story of the historic meeting between the pioneers and Bridger. Because 
of the importance of this meeting to the pioneers' decisions on where they 
wanted to go, it is considered of national significance. The area is 
privately owned. It has the potential, however, for the Bureau of Land 
Management to obtain appropriate interests in order to interpret and 
manage the site. 

Site 12-1 , See Initial Protection Segment, page 66. 

Site 12-2 , Church Butte, Wyoming (T18N; R113W;Sec.25). This site is 
rated A-1 and later became a prominent landmark on the Mormon Pioneer 
Trail, but was not mentioned by the pioneers. It is located on the 7.5 
Min. Church Butte, Wyo. Quad., and is 15 miles northeast of Lyman. 
This large, sandy butte is often referred to as Solomon Temple due to its 
large temple-like shape and verdant, eroded walls, capped by a flattop 
mesa. A roadside turnoff and interpretive marker are needed. An oil 
pipeline right-of-way crosses just to the east of the site and a pumphouse 
is located just southeast of the monument. Old US-30S highway, which 
was a major highway near the site prior to construction of Interstate 80, 



86 



is now in disrepair and appears relegated to use as a ranch road. The 
site is of State significance and suitable for administration by the State or 
county. 

Site 12-3 , Bridger Trading Post, Wyoming (T16N; R115W;Sec.33). This 
site is rated A-1, and is notable as one of three settlements on the 
Mormon Pioneer Trail at the time of the pioneer journey. The fort was 
composed of two double log houses about 40 feet long each and joined by 
a pen for horses. The site is located on the 7.5 Min. Fort Bridger, Wyo. 
Quad. The post was later reconstructed as a military fort and is now a 
part of the town of Fort Bridger. This area is very important in both 
emigrant and military history. The area already has quite a bit of 
development and interpretation. There is the need now to develop 
specific Mormon Pioneer Trail interpretation and to provide a foot trail to 
interest points adjacent to this fort. This site is of national significance 
and is already State-owned and administered. 

Site 12-4 , Bear River Crossing, Wyoming (T14N; R119W;Sec.29). This site 
is rated B-1 and is the last major river crossing in Wyoming. The 
crossing site is on the 7.5 Min. Mills, Wyo. Quad., and is 10 miles south 
of Evanston. US 89, an all-weather highway, and bridge are located near 
the crossing area and a historic marker related to Bear Town is located 
on the east side of the river. A marker specifically for the Trail and a 
roadside pullout are needed at this crossing site. The site has been 
disturbed by the location of the US 89 bridge and by the relocation of 
the junction to the Altamont county road. Altamont, located 5 miles east 
of the Bear River crossing, marked the highest point of the entire Trail 
at 7,756 foot elevation. The site is of state significance and suitable for 
administration by either the State or Uinta County. 

Site 12-5 , The Needles, Wyoming (T14N; R121W;Sec.23&26). This site is 
rated A-1, and is a prominent landmark on the Trail near the 
Wyoming-Utah boundary where Brigham Young came down with a violent 
attack of sickness suspected as mountain fever. Located on the 7.5 Min. 
Wahsatch, Utah-Wyo. Quad., the site is about 8 miles southwest of 
Evanston on Coyote Creek. Facilities needed include access right-of-way, 
parking area, and interpretive marker. This general region has high 
potential for energy exploration and development. Existing historical 
values are in danger of being subverted or lost due to the energy 
activity. This site is of state significance and is suitable for State 
administration. 



87 



UTAH 




Psspf 



OVERVIEW 

The long plains crossing accomplished, the pioneers now began their last 
but most important leg of the journey—crossing the rugged Wasatch 
Mountains. They entered the State on July 12, almost three months after 
leaving Winter Quarters on the Missouri. 

Brigham Young's pioneers, after passing Cache Cave, proceeded down the 
precipitous Echo Canyon, followed the Weber River north to Henefer, then 
turned away from the river and up Main Canyon to Hogback Summit. At 
the summit they had their first real view of the Wasatch country. They 
continued along the Donner-Reed route descending to East Canyon, then 
south along the creek to Mormon Flats. Here they turned west following 
Little Emigration Canyon to the bald and rocky crest of Big Mountain 
Pass. They rough-locked their wagon wheels for a straight-down descent 
to Mountain Dell Canyon where they took a southerly direction as far as 
the later established Camp Grant. At this point, the wagon route swings 
west over the dividing ridge of Little Mountain Summit, the last summit on 
the long Trail, and to a sharp descent to Emigration Canyon. The final 
travel was on the short but treacherous winding and narrow canyon floor 
to "This is the Place." The pioneer company scouts first reached the 



88 



Salt Lake Valley on July 21, 1847, the main body on July 22, and their 
leader, Brigham Young, due to illness, followed the main body two days 
later. 



SIGNIFICANT HISTORIC SITES ALONG THE MORMON PIONEER TRAIL 
In State, Local, or Private Ownership 

Site 13-1 , Cache Cave, Utah (T5N; R7E;Sec.23). This site is rated as 
A-1 and was the first major campsite for emigrants entering Utah. It is 
located on 7.5 Min. Wahsatch, Utah-Wyo. Quad. The site is 
approximately four miles north and one mile west of Castle Rock. The 
cave is about thirty feet long, fifteen feet wide, and from four to six feet 
high. The site is privately owned. Access to the area is restricted and 
Meadow Basin, situated just below the cave, is being explored for energy 
purposes. Right-of-way to the cave and ownership around the cave have 
potential for public use and development. The area is of national 
significance and suitable for State of Utah administration. 

Site 13-2 , Echo Canyon, Utah (T3&4N ; R5,6&7E, Sec. various) . This site is 
rated B-1 . The pioneers passed through about 16 miles of this long 
narrow gorge and were impressed with its peculiar echo from which it 
derived its name. The canyon is located on 7.5 Min. Shearing Corral, 
Castle Rock, Heiners Creek, Henefer, and Coalville, Utah Quads. The 
canyon mouth is five miles south of Henefer. The length of the canyon is 
traversed by Interstate 80, Union Pacific tracks, and Old US-30S. The 
Trail is undefinable because of the development of transportation systems 
in the canyon. The site is of state significance. There is a need for 
interpretive and day use facilities at interest points in the canyon. The 
canyon is administered by the State of Utah. 

Site 13-3 , Weber River Crossing, Utah (T3N; R4E;Sec. 10). This site is 
rated B-1 and it represents the only major river crossing by the pioneers 
in Utah. It is located on 7.5 Min. Henefer, Utah Quad. The site is 
about one-half mile south of Henefer. There are trail ruts in this 
vicinity. The exact location of the ford is unknown and the general area 
is in private ownership and used as pasture lands. About five acres are 
required to provide access to the site and to develop interpretive 
facilities. This site is of local significance and is suitable for county or 
town of Henefer administration. 

Site 13-4 , East Canyon Reservoir, Utah (T2N ; R3E;Sec. various) . This 
site is rated B-2. The Trail in this area is now flooded by the 
reservoir. The site could provide recreation support for Trail users. It 
is on the East Canyon Reservoir, Utah Quad. The reservoir is 8 miles 
southwest of Henefer. The 267 land and 681 water surface acres were 
developed in 1896 for irrigation purposes by private irrigators. The 
State of Utah administers the East Canyon Lake State Recreation Area 
under lease to provide fishing, boating, picnicking, camping and 
snowmobile activities. The recreation facilities need to be expanded. 
Interpretive facilities are needed and should be located within the 
State-administered area. This area is of state significance and should 
remain under State of Utah administration. 



89 



Site 13-5 , Little Emigration Canyon, Utah (T1N; R3E;Sec. Various). This 
site is rated B-1 and is where the Trail passed up the Canyon. It now 
offers the only pristine portion of the Trail route in Utah. It is located 
on the 7.5 Min. Big Dutch Hollow, Utah Quad. The canyon is four miles 
in length and connects Mormon Flats on the east with Big Mountain Pass 
on the west. Equestrian and pedestrian trails are needed along with a 
trailhead, parking, and other support facilities. This area is of national 
significance and is owned and administered by the State of Utah. 

Site 13-6 , Big Mountain Pass, Utah (T1N; R3E;Sec.7) . This site is rated 
A-1 . At 7,420 feet elevation, it is the third highest point on the entire 
Trail. The site is located on the 7.5 Min. Mountain Dell, Utah Quad. 
The site is 10 air miles northeast of Salt Lake City. The pass serves as 
the boundary line between Salt Lake and Morgan Counties and is near the 
Wasatch National Forest. A radio transmitting facility and grounds are 
located at the pass and US 65, a blacktopped highway, cuts through the 
pass. An existing gravel parking area at the pass is used by sightseers. 
Winter access and road maintenance are problems. The State proposes to 
develop a lookout tower, parking, picnicking, camping and interpretive 
facilities at the pass. Big Mountain is of national significance. 
Ownership is by the State of Utah and Salt Lake City. This site is 
suitable for administration by the State of Utah. 

Site 13-7 , Little Mountain Summit, Utah (T1N; R2E;Sec.34). This site is 
rated B-1 and is the last summit the pioneers had to cross on their long 
trek. It is located on 7.5 Min. Mountain Dell, Utah Quad. The site is 
about five miles northeast of Salt Lake City and the summit at 6,227 feet 
elevation is considered as the entry point to Emigration Canyon. A 
turnout parking area and a marker are needed at the pass; facilities can 
be developed within the existing highway right-of-way. There is an 
existing pipeline that crosses the Trail in this area. The site is of 
national significance. Administration is suitable for Salt Lake County. 

Site 13-8 , Emigration Canyon, Utah (T1N&1S; R1 E&2E;Sec. Various) . This 
site is rated C-1. The canyon represented some of the most difficult 
terrain of the entire journey. The site is located on 7.5 Min. Mountain 
Dell, Utah Quad. The mouth of the canyon is within the Salt Lake City 
limits. The canyon is now a choice and heavily developed residential 
area. The Trail should be marked through the canyon and a marker 
placed along the existing highway. The State has ownership of property 
near the western end of the canyon that is suitable for a marker location. 
The canyon is of state significance and administration should be by either 
the State of Utah or Salt Lake County. 

Site 13-9 , Last Camp, Utah (T1N ; R2E;Sec.33) . This site is rated A-1 
and was the last camping spot of the pioneers before entering the Salt 
Lake Valley. The camp is located on the 7.5 Min. Mountain Dell, Utah 
Quad, and is about six miles northeast of Salt Lake City in Emigration 
Canyon. A small roadside turnout and granite marker have been located 
at the camp. This site needs a suitable turnout, the marker replaced 
with a shelter and descriptive material added to enhance a self-guided 
tour route. The site is publicly owned and is of national significance but 
should be administered by the State of Utah or Salt Lake County. 



90 



Site 13-10 , Dormer Hill, Utah (T1S; R1 E;Sec.11 ). This site is rated B-2. 
The site is the location of the Donner-Reed party's time-consuming climb 
out of Emigration Canyon in 1846. The area is on the 7.5 Min. Fort 
Douglas, Utah Quad, and is about one mile northeast of Salt Lake City 
near the west entrance to Emigration Canyon. The site is marked with a 
monument and plaque at a roadside turnout. The top of the hill has been 
developed for a transmission (radio-telephone) facility. The turnout area 
needs to be improved by adding blacktop parking and providing Trail 
interpretation features. The area is of local significance and is suitable 
for administration by Salt Lake County. 

Site 13-11 , This is the Place, Utah (T1N; R1E;Sec.11 ). This site is rated 
A-1 . The site is located within the Pioneer Trail State Park and marks 
the spot where Woodruff's carriage paused on July 24, 1847, and Brigham 
Young observed the Great Salt Lake Valley. The park is shown on the 
7.5 Min. Fort Douglas, Utah Quad, and is within the Salt Lake City 
limits. The monument was done by Mahonri Young and erected in the 
centennial year 1947 to commemorate the anniversary of the Mormon 
pioneers' arrival in the Valley. The park should be established as the 
western terminus of the Trail. The area is of national significance and is 
owned and administered by the State of Utah, Division of Parks and 
Recreation. 



91 



MARKING PROCESS 



INTRODUCTION 

The following fulfills section 5(f)(2) of the National Trails System Act. 
That section requires the comprehensive plan for the Mormon Pioneer 
National Historic Trail to include an identification of the process to be 
followed by the Secretary in marking the Trail according to the 
requirements of section 7(c) of the Act. 

Section 7(c) marking requirements state: 

"Where a national historic trail follows existing public 
roads, developed rights-of-way or waterways, and similar 
features of man's nonhistorically related development, 
approximating the original location of a historic route, and 
where a national historic trail parallels an existing public road, 
such road may be marked to commemorate the historic route * * 
*. 

"The Secretary of the Interior * * * in consultation with 
appropriate governmental agencies and public and private 
organizations, shall establish a uniform marker, including 
thereon an appropriate and distinctive symbol for each national 
recreation, national scenic, and national historic trail. Where 
the trails cross lands administered by Federal agencies such 
markers shall be erected at appropriate points along the trails 
and maintained by the Federal agency administering the trail in 
accordance with standards established by the appropriate 
Secretary and where the trails cross non-Federal lands, in 
accordance with written cooperative agreements, the appropriate 
Secretary shall provide such uniform markers to cooperating 
agencies and shall require such agencies to erect and maintain 
them in accordance with the standards established." 

Additionally, section 6 of the Act states: 

"Connecting or side trails within park, forest, and other 
recreation areas administered by the Secretary of the Interior 
* * * may be established, designated, and marked as 
components of a national recreation, national scenic or national 
historic trail. When no Federal land acquisition is involved, 
connecting or side trails may be located across lands 
administered by interstate, State, or local governmental 
agencies with their consent: Provided, That such trails 
provide additional points of public access to national recreation, 
national scenic or national historic trails." 



Marking Objectives of the Comprehensive Pl an : 

1. To mark the Trail with a uniform marker that distinctly identifies the 
Trail route. 



92 



2. To mark the Initial Federal Protection Segments. 

3. To mark the Trail along non-Federal segments. 

4. To mark a parallel designated highway route. 

5. To inform the Congress of the process to be followed for sign 
erection and maintenance along the route. 



Operation : 

The directional signs will be placed within the existing right-of-way of 
Federal, State and local highways and will require no acquisition of 
private lands. Interstate Routes will be marked only at rest-areas. 
Similar markers will be placed at existing highway rest areas, developed 
historic sites, State parks, and similar areas already under the control of 
land-managing agencies. This will avoid any new development and will 
minimize the problems of littering and vandalism as these areas are 
already policed and patrolled. All signs will be designed, placed and 
maintained in accordance with the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control 
Devices , which states: 

"Except on the Interstate System, Trail marker signs may 
be erected when they have been approved by and are under 
the control of the State highway organization. Control of such 
markers by a county or city highway department is also 
satisfactory. The installation must be consistent with highway 
safety practices and with practices governing signs of this 
general nature." 

The Secretary of the Interior, through the National Park Service, will 
make these markers available to Federal, State, or county agencies upon 
application by those agencies. The National Park Service will solicit such 
applications. Erection, maintenance, and replacement of signs will be the 
responsibility of the States and appropriate managing agencies pursuant 
to cooperative agreements or memoranda of understanding with the 
Secretary, acting through the National Park Service. Although the 
placement and maintenance will not involve direct Federal assistance, such 
activities will comply with all Federal Highway Administration rules, 
regulations, and procedures. 

States are responsible for choosing any of the following alternatives for 
erection of their Trail symbol signs: 

1 . A state may erect the initial set of primary and secondary signs 
along routes suggested in this plan using the uniform marker for the 
Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail. 

2. A state may supplement their existing signs with the uniform 
marker. 

3. A state may replace any existing signs with the uniform marker or 
replace their signs as existing signs deteriorate and replacement is 
warranted. 

93 



MARKING PROGRAM 

The following are considerations used to develop the marking program: 

- General route location, appropriate sign design, facility and marker 
standards, and cooperative agreement requirements. 

- Maps showing recreation side trails, connector trails, type of 
marking (coded) for each site at full plan implementation. 

- Chart summared by Interstate, Federal and State routes, schedule 
for development actions, appropriate level of administration. 



MORMON PIONEER NATIONAL HISTORIC TRAIL SYSTEM MARKER 




^ 



* r '°NAL HlSTO* xC 



94 



The Advisory Council recommends the historic trail system marker as 
shown for use on Initial Federal Sites and Segments, and segments 
certified for inclusion into the Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail. 
The buffalo skull in the center of a rounded triangle will be the official 
logo of the Trail, but the logo can be used in conjunction with other 
signs or materials as necessary. 

The recommended marker conforms to the shape established for Trails 
within the National Trails System. The symbol is a representation of 
buffalo skulls encountered by the Mormon Pioneers along the Trail route. 
The color complies with the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices . 

The uniform marker will be available in three sizes. These are 3\" , 9", 
and 18", constructed from .040" and .080" aluminum substrate with a 
reflective sheeting. The 3V markers will be utilized as markers for 
recreation side trails. The 9" markers will be utilized to designate trail 
heads and/or highway connector routes off the designated highway route. 
The 18" marker will be used to mark the designated highway route and/or 
wherever the Trail crosses a major or secondary highway. 



Brown on White with Brown Letters 

Sizes Type Materials 

3-1/2" Trail Marker .040 gauge steel, "Scotchcal" 

9" Trail Head Marker .080 gauge steel, "Scotchcal" 

18" Highway Crossing .080 gauge steel, "Scotchcal" 



The placing of the Trail markers will be accomplished in the following 
order of priority: 

1. Major U.S. and State highway crossings, all high potential sites or 
segments, all existing and/or future visitor information centers. 

2. County roadways. 

3. Selected seasonal routes such as Bureau of Land Management and 
Fish and Wildlife Service routes where such roadways provide access to or 
intersect the Trail . 

Various alternatives for the marking process and designated highway 
route were considered in the development of a comprehensive plan. 
Limited seasonal use, road hazards, and safety considerations were 
weighed in the various alternatives. The designated highway route 
chosen closely parallels the Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail and 
utilizes primary and secondary paved highways the length of the Trail. 
The recommended designated highway routes and secondary connector 
routes are as follows: 



95 




IOWA I 

DESIGNATED ROUTE 

MORMON PIONEER NATIONAL HISTORIC TRAIL 
COMPREHENSIVE PLAN 



10 



20 30 



ILLINOIS 

DESIGNATED ROUTE FROM NAUVOQ 

To Hamilton: 12 miles (19 km.) 
Beginning at the Nauvoo City limits, 
the route will travel south on State 
96 parallel to the east bank of the 
Mississippi River to junction with 
US 136 west of Hamilton. The Trail 
turns west and crosses the Miss- 
issippi River to Keokuk, Iowa. 

IOWA 



CARTHAGE CONNECTOR ROUTE 

Route distance: 11 miles (18 km.) 
Commencing at Hamilton, Illinois, 
the route would travel east on 
US 136 to Carthage and the scene 
of Joseph Smith's death in the 
Hancock County jail. Return is by 
the same route. 



DESIGNATED ROUTE FROM KEOKUK 

To Leon: 138 miles (222 km.) 
The route travel north from Keokuk 
on US 61 to a junction with US 218 
west of Montrose, then northwest on 
US 218 to State 2, then turns west 
to Leon. 



DESIGNATED ROUTE FROM LEON 

To Council Bluffs: 290 miles (466 km.) 
Turning north at Leon, the route 
follows US 69 to Osceola and junctions 
with US 34, goes west on US 34 to 
Creston, north on State 25 to 
Greenfield, then due west on State 
92 to connect with US 275 at 
Council Bluffs. 




IOWA 
DESIGNATED ROUTE 

MORMON PIONEER NATIONAL HISTORIC TRAIL 
COMPREHENSIVE PLAN 



96 



IOWA 

GARDEN GROVE CONNECTOR ROUTE MT . PISGAH CONNECTOR ROUTE 



Distance: 14 miles (22 km.) 
Starting at junction of State 2 and 
204 approximately 8 miles east of 
Leon, the route goes north 4 miles 
to the town of Garden Grove and 
then west 1/2 mile to the Mormon 
Cemetery, from here the route con- 
tinues west 9 miles to US 69. 



Distance: 9 miles (15 km.) 
From junction of US 34 and US 169 west 
of Thayer, the route travels north 
about 3 miles to County Road, then 
west 2 miles, then south 1/2 mile to 
the Mormon Cemetery. The return route 
would go west and south on county 
roads to the Town of Talmage. 




MT. PISGAH - MORMON 
PIONEER WAY STATION 

Between 300 and 800 Mormon pioneers perished 
here from 1846 to 1852. Having been driven 
from their homes by armed mobs, they slopped 
here on their westward trek, named it Mt 
Pisgah after a Biblical mountain range, and 
established a way-station. Thousands of acres 
were cleared, buildings built, and caves dug 
for shelter until log cabins were constructed, 
but lack of food and adequate shelter took 
their toll. In spite of these hardships Mt. 
Pisgah became a stopping place for an almost 
endless train of westward-bound Mormon pioneers 
until 1832 when the last Latter-day Saints 
left and the site was bought by a Henry 
Peters and named Peteravllle. 
The original community was located on the 
slope and flatlands east of this spot. The 
cemetery extended down the hill to the west. 
north and south beyond the railroad tracks. 
Headstones were long ago removed or destroyed 
by the elements, but the large monument 
was erected in 1888. - (over) 



Monument Marker at Trailside Historical 
Park Near Garden Grove 



Marker at Union County Conservation 
Board Park 



NEBRASKA 



DESIGNATED ROUTE FROM OMAHA 



DESIGNATED ROUTE FROM FREMONT 



To Fremont: 39 miles (62 km.) 
Commencing at the west end of the 
South Omaha Bridge where highway 
US 275 enters the State, the Trail 
follows US 275 westward through 
the urban metropolitan area in the 
south part of the city, then cross- 
ing the Elkhorn River, swings north' 
west close to the Union Pacific 
Railroad and the east bank of the 
Platte River to the City of Fremont. 



To Columbus: 47 miles (76 km.) 
From Fremont, the route would turn 
west on US 30 generally following 
along the north bank of the Platte 
River, passing through the communities 
of North Bend and Schuyler to Columbus, 
where the Loup River confluences with 
the Platte. 



97 



NEBRASKA I 

DESIGNATED ROUTE 

MORMON PIONEER NATIONAL HISTORIC TRAIL 
COMPREHENSIVE PLAN 




NEBRASKA 

DESIGNATED ROUTE FROM COLUMBUS FLORENCE CONNECTOR ROUTE 



To Grand Island: 66 miles (106 km.) 
Leaving Columbus, the route crosses 
south over the Loup River on US 30 
and US 81 then forks (right) on 
US 30 passing up the Platte River 
Valley southwest to Grand Island. 
The 40-mile segment of the route 
between Columbus and Chapman is 
unrelated to the actual pioneer Trail 
but does offer continuity of travel 
through eastern Nebraska. 



Distance: 35 miles (56 km.) 
Starting at the intersection of 
Missouri Avenue (US 275) and 13th 
Street in Omaha, this route extends 
north along the eastern residential 
area to Florence (Winter Quarters). 
The route continues westward on 
State Highway 36 to rejoin US 275 
south of Fremont. 



LOUP RIVER CONNECTOR ROUTE 



si;'- 




*&£i-3l 



THE MORMOK TRAIL 

IOC* «™ or e«t pioneer 

trail along «* ^\£™ a ^,,e south or "ere 



,f eicape from P««sc 



t Salt LaHe In »47. 



the heavily' used 



• an avenoe of escap* »— - 

-tony to a new life. fi 



Brtgham Young 



contact with, the travelers 



river from near Kearney westward. Among the ex 
.editions which followed, were several so poor 
that pioneers walked and pulled handcarts. , 

The trail became one of the great roadways to 
' the west, used by Mormons, military expeditions. 
goM seekrr* and settlers. 

The completion of the Union Pacific Railroad 

I in 1069 ended extensive use of the trail as the 

railroad tracks followed essentially this same route. 

Today, the Lincoln Highway (highway 30) follows 

this great roadway to the west. 



Distance: 53 miles (85 km.) 
The route starts west from the 
junction of US 30 and US 81 in 
Columbus, and follows US 81 then 
State 22 to Fullerton. The route 
crosses the Loup River and con- 
tinues cross-country on State 14 
to join US 30 at Central City. 



Marker at Mormon Trail Wayside Park 
Junction of US 30 and State 92 
Northeast of Central City 



98 



NEBRASKA 

DESIGNATED ROUTE FROM GRAND 
ISLAND 

To Ogallala: 195 miles (314 km.) 
Departing Grand Island on US 30, the 
route goes west closely following the 
original Trail and paralleling the 
Platte River course. At North Platte, 
the route leaves the main Platte River 
and continues along the north bank of 
the North Platte River into Ogallala. 




', . .. <5w- 'A*. 



DESIGNATED ROUTE FROM OGALLALA 

To Henry: 138 miles (222 km.) 
Traveling north out of Ogallala 
on US 26, the route swings west 
along the south side of Lake 
McConaughy, crosses the North 
Platte River at Lewellen, recrosses 
the river at Bridgeport for a short 
distance, then returns to the north 
bank again at Bayard for the remainder 
of the Trail in Nebraska. The route 
leaves the state near Henry. 



>tt«bluff 



NEBRASKA II 
DESIGNATED ROUTE 

MORMON PIONEER NATIONAL HISTORIC TRAIL 
COMPREHENSIVE PLAN 




th Piatt* 



99 



WYOMING 



DESIGNATED ROUTE FROM 
TORRINGTON 

To Casper: 142 miles (228 km.) 
This route enters the State 8 miles 
east of Torrington on US 26 and 
continues along the north side of 
the North Platte River to Guernsey. 
Here the route crosses the river and 
travels west 12 miles to junction 
with Interstate 25. The remainder 
of the route to Casper is along I -25. 



FORT LARAMIE CONNECTOR ROUTE 



Distance: 6 miles (10 km.) 
At the town of Fort Laramie, the route 
will go west 3 miles on State 160 to 
Fort Laramie National Historic Site, 
then return by the same route to US 26 



DESIGNATED ROUTE FROM CASPER 

To Muddy Gap: 75 miles (120 km.) 
Leaving Casper, the route takes 
State 220 southwest and passes 
Alcova and Pathfinder Reservoirs; 
historic Independence Rock and 
Devil's Gate to junction with 
US 287 at Muddy Gap. 



OREGON TRAIL CONNECTOR ROUTE 

Distance: 37 miles (60 km.) 
This route leaves Casper on US 26 and 
turns west at Mills to follow Poison 
Spider and Oregon Trail County Roads. 
The retracement Trail after crossing 
range country between the Platte and 
the Sweetwater Rivers, returns to the 
designated route 8 miles east of 
Independence Rock. 



WYOMING 

DESIGNATED ROUTE 

MORMON PIONEER NATIONAL HISTORIC TRAIL 

COMPREHENSIVE PLAN 

*II5 RIVE" 

Douglas 




100 



WYOMING II 

DESIGNATED ROUTE 

MORMON PIONEER NATIONAL HISTORIC TRAIL 

COMPREHENSIVE PLAN 



Fontenelle 




DESIGNATED ROUTE FROM 
MUDDY GAP 

To Evanston: 309 miles (497 km.) 
At the Muddy Gap junction, the route 
swings northwest up the Sweetwater 
River valley on US 287 where it joins 
State 28 just south of Lander. From 
here, the route goes generally south- 
west on State 28 to Farson. Leaving 
the original Trail at Farson, the route 
goes directly south on US 187 to Rock 
Springs where it joins Interstate 80. 
The remainder of the route continues 
west to the Utah-Wyoming stateline 
along Interstate 80. 



ICE SLOUGH CONNECTOR ROUTE 

Distance: 11 miles (18 km.) 
Beginning about 1.5 miles west of 
Ice Slough, this secondary route 
would generally parallel US 287 west 
along the original Oregon Trail to the 
Sweetwater 6th Crossing. The route 
would then return to the highway via 
existing ranch roads ending at the 
Sweetwater Station vicinity. 



DRY SANDY CONNECTOR ROUTE 



Distance: 23 miles (37 km.) 
See Dry Sandy Initial Protection 
Segment. This route would travel 
west from the False-Parting-of-the- 
Way turnout on State 28 and follow 
the emigrant Trail north of Dry Sandy 
Creek to the crossing of Little Sandy 
Creek. The route would then return 
to State 28 using a county road. 



FARSON CUTOFF CONNECTOR ROUTE 

Distance: 30 miles (48 km.) 
See Lombard Ferry Initial Protection 
Segment. Beginning at Farson, this 
route would follow the Lower Farson 
Cutoff road to the potential overlook 
area for the Green River valley and 
the Lombard Ferry Site. The route 
could continue on to Fontenelle or 
return to Farson. 



101 



UTAH 



DESIGNATED ROUTE FROM 
STATELINE 



EMIGRANT CANYON CONNECTOR 
ROUTE 



To Salt Lake City: 66 miles (106 km.) 
Entering Utah on Interstate 80, 
2 miles west of Evanston, the route 
passes through Echo Canyon to join 
Interstate 80N near the Weber River, 
then turns north on to Henefer. 
This segment of the Trail is marked 
only at the Echo Canyon rest stop. 
The marked route starts in Henefer 
and follows west on State 65, a 
two-lane paved highway known as 
the "Pioneer Memorial Highway," 
following that route to the vicinity 
of Mountain Dell. From that point, 
the route leaves State 65 and con- 
tinues south on State 239 to Inter- 
state 80. The last leg of the route 
to Salt Lake City is along Interstate 
80. 



Distance: 10 miles (17 km.) 
The route starts at the junction 
of State 65 and 239 near Mountain 
Dell, then goes west on State 65, 
crosses Little Mountain Summit to 
the upper end of Emigration Canyon 
In the canyon, it passes the his- 
toric "Last Camp" site and emerges 
from the canyon at Pioneer Trail 
State Park. That marks the end of 
the Trail. 



D ROUTE / 



UTAH 

DESIGNATEI 

MORMON PIONEER NATIONAL HISTORIC TRAIL ' 



COMPREHENSIVE PLAN 




SALT LAKE CIT 



I z 

I o 



102 



Trail marking responsibilities for segments recommended by the study 
team for the 1,624 miles of designated primary auto routes and secondary 
connector routes are displayed in summary below: 



TABLE V - SUMMARY AUTO ROUTES 
(in miles) 







Primary Auto 


Route 


Secondary 
Connector 
Route 




Segment 


Interstate 


Federa 


I State 


Totals 


Illinois 




-- 


-- 


12 


11 




23 


Iowa 




-- 


77 


213 


23 




313 


Nebraska 




-- 


485 


-- 


88 




573 


Wyoming 




210 


171 


145 


107 




633 


Utah 




39 


-- 


33 


10 




82 


TOTALS 




249 


733 


403 


239 




1,624 


Percent of 


Totals 


15 


45 


25 


15 




100 



103 



COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS 
AND MEMORANDA OF UNDERSTANDING 



INTRODUCTION 

In accordance with Section 7 of the National Trails System Act, admini- 
stration, management, and development of the Mormon Pioneer National 
Historic Trail will be accomplished by virtue of cooperative agreements 
consummated between the Secretary of the Interior and the various State 
or local governments or private interests involved. In the case of 
Federal interests, memoranda of understanding will be established between 
the Secretary and other Federal Departments; or in the case of other 
bureaus of the Department of the Interior, between those bureaus and the 
National Park Service. 

Initiating the cooperative agreements and memoranda of understanding is 
selected as the means to implement the plan. The following tables present 
details of such agreements and memoranda for each of the managing 
entities of the Trail. Also included in this section is a sample of a 
cooperative agreement. All Federal agencies are obligated to develop and 
protect the Trail as identified in the Plan. 

Cooperative agreements will be pursued with the following entities and 
others as appropriate in regard to the establishment, signing, marking, 
and maintenance of the Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail. 



FEDERAL AGENCIES National Park Service 

Bureau of Land Management 
Fish and Wildlife Service 
Forest Service 

STATES Illinois 
Iowa 

Nebraska 
Wyoming 
Utah 

URBAN AREAS City of Council Bluffs, Iowa 
City of Omaha, Nebraska 
City of Casper, Wyoming 
City of Salt Lake, Utah 

ORGANIZATIONS Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter-Day Saints 
Nauvoo Restoration, Inc. 
Mormon Pioneer Trail Foundation 



104 







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vice for transmittal to 
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108 



SAMPLE 
COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT 
BETWEEN 
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
AND THE 

STATE OF 

CONCERNING THE MORMON PIONEER 
NATIONAL HISTORIC TRAIL 



This Cooperative Agreement ("Agreement") is entered into by and 
between the U. S. Department of the Interior ("Interior") and the State 
of ("State"). 

I . Authorities 

This Agreement is developed under the following authorities: 

A. The National Trails System Act, 16 U.S.C. 1241, et. seq. as 
amended by the National Parks and Recreation Act of 1978, 92 Stat. 3511. 
16 U.S.C. 1244(a)(4) 

B. Intergovernmental Cooperation Act of 1968 (42 U.S.C. 4201 et. seq.) 

I I . Purpose 

The purpose of this Agreement is to provide the basis for cooperation 
between Interior and the State to implement the comprehensive plan for 
the Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail. 

III. Background 

The National Parks and Recreation Act of 1978, 92 Stat. 3511, 16 USC 
1244(a) (4) amended the National Trails System Act ("the Act") to 
establish the Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail ("the Trail"). The 
Act places responsibility for administering the Trail with the Secretary of 
the Interior ("Secretary"). Only Federal lands are to be administered as 
Initial Protection Segments of the Trail, but the Act authorizes the 
Secretary to encourage and to assist State, local, or private entities in 
establishing, administering, and protecting those segments of the trail 
which cross non-Federally owned lands. In furtherance of that objective 
the Act provides that cooperative agreements between Interior and 
cooperating non-Federal agencies may be written for marking the Trail, 
establishing rights-of-way, and development and maintenance of facilities. 
Pursuant to the Act, the comprehensive plan for the Trail outlines 
objectives and practices to be observed in the management of the Trail 
and identifies six initial protection segments, 75 significant non-Federal 
areas, procedures for non-Federal certification, and the process to mark 

the Trail. The Governor of the State of and appropriate State 

agencies were fully consulted in the preparation and approval of the plan. 

IV. Responsibilities 

The State will be the primary entity to mark the non-Federal portions of 
the Trail. Both the State and Interior mutually desire that the Mormon 

Pioneer National Historic Trail across the State of be 

appropriately marked, administered and managed so as to accomplish the 
purposes of the National Trails System Act. 



109 



A. The U.S. Department of the Interior and the State of 

mutually agree to: 

1. Establish individual coordinators within each administering 
agency for Trail administration activities. 

2. Adopt the Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail comprehensive 

plan dated , and to manage the Trail's resources as 

appropriate and feasible. 

3. Keep each other informed and to consult periodically on 
management problems pertaining to the Trail, including 
consultation with the Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail 
Advisory Council, and coordinating Trail management with the 
planning of programs for other units of the National Trails 
System, State rivers and trails systems, and other land use 
programs. 

4. Subject to the availability of funds and personnel, provide 
assistance at the request of either party for the planning and 
development of facilities, acquisition of land, and the admini- 
stration of the Trail. 

B. Interior agrees to: 

1. Designate the National Park Service (NPS) as the Federal 
Agency to carry out the Department's responsibilities, as 
appropriate, concerning the Trail. 

2. Provide the State of with an initial set of Trail 

markers and signposts in accordance with the marking program 
established in the comprehensive plan for the Trail. 

3. Publish a notice of the Trail right-of-way in the Federal 
Register . 

C. The State of agrees to: 

1. Mark the Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail with an initial 
set of markers and signposts furnished by the National Park 
Service, and marked according to the marking process identified 
in the comprehensive plan for the Trail. 

2. Maintain the Trail markers erected under item C.1., above, 
according to the standards in the Manual of Uniform Traffic 

Control Devices and at no expense to the United States. 

3. Administer, manage, protect and maintain State-owned segments 
in accordance with the purposes of the Trail and the 
comprehensive plan. 

4. Develop, operate and maintain public access, recreational and 
interpretive opportunities, and visitor use facilities in accord 
with the comprehensive plan. 



110 



5. Seek funding from State appropriations and appropriate Federal 
sources such as the Land and Water Conservation Fund or 
historic preservation grants, for acquiring, administering, 
managing, developing, operating and maintaining State-owned 
segments. 

6. Seek such additional State legislative authority as may be 
required for public use of and to obligate State funds for 
management of State-owned rights-of-way, sites or other lands 
in the Trail corridor right-of-way. 

7. Promulgate such rules and regulations as may be necessary for 
proper administration and protection of State-owned segments. 

8. Seek cooperative agreements with owners of those private lands 
within the Trail right-of-way adjoining high potential 
State-owned segments where necessary to assure adequate 
protection or public access to the segment. 

9. Consider acquiring necessary interests through donation, 
exchange or purchase of those lands identified in item C.8., 
above, where cooperative agreements with private landowners 
cannot be consummated. 

V. Non -discrimination 

During the performance of this agreement, the cooperators agree to abide 
by the terms of Executive Order 11246 on non-discrimination and will not 
discriminate against any person because of race, color, religion, age, sex 
or national origin. The cooperators will take affirmative action to ensure 
that applicants are employed without regard to their race, color, religion, 
age, sex or national origin. 

VI . Officials not to benefit 

No member of or delegate to Congress, or resident Commissioner, shall be 
admitted to any share or part of this agreement, or to any benefit that 
may arise therefrom; but this provision shall not be construed to extend 
to this agreement if made with a corporation for its general benefit. 

VIII. Limitations 

Nothing in this Agreement will be construed as limiting or affecting in 
any way the authority or legal responsibility of the Department of the 
Interior or of the State to perform beyond the respective authority of 
each, or to require either party to expend funds in any contract or other 
obligation for future payment of funds or services in excess of those 
available or authorized for expenditure. 

VII. Amendment 

Amendments to this Agreement may be proposed by either party and shall 
become effective upon written approval by both parties. 

IX. Execution 

In witness whereof, the parties hereto have executed this agreement as of 
the last date written below: 



Secretary of the Interior Date Governor, State of Date 

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113 



FINDING OF NO SIGNIFICANT IMPACT 

MORMON PIONEER NATIONAL HISTORIC TRAIL 
COMPREHENSIVE PLAN 



The Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Mormon Pioneer National 
Historic Trail Comprehensive Plan is attached as a part of this document. 
The EA was made available in draft form for public comment during June 
1981. This document (A) responds to comments on the EA; (B) identifies 
the selected alternative; and (C) makes a finding of no significant impact 
for the selected alternative. 

A. Comments received on the EA suggested that (1) there should be 
ready reference to a description of the affected environment; (2) there 
should be more discussion of other than cultural management 
considerations, especially on what the cumulative impacts might be from 
highway, energy, and facility developments and similar concerns, and on 
private interests; (3) an evaluation of costs for Alternative 3 as was done 
for Alternative 2; and (4) additional consultation. 

Responses to these comments are as follows: 

1. The EA refers to the 1976 assessment for the Trail feasibility study 
which describes the environment along the Trail. The comprehensive plan 
summarizes this description on pages 3-5 and 10-16, and gives greater 
detail in the sections on Initial and Potential Certified Protection 
Segments. 

2. The Congress designated the Trail as a "national historic trail," thus 
the plan appropriately places the greatest emphasis on protecting, 
preserving, and interpreting the historic resources as aspects of 
American culture. Overall, impacts on the Trail from future developments 
are not expected to be great. Most of the Trail, especially in Iowa, 
Nebraska, and parts of Utah is overlaid by modern-day highways, towns, 
farms, and industry. The section of the plan on Potential Certified 
Protection Segments indicates that most of these are already in some type 
of public ownership. Any proposed changes to these sites and segments 
would be subject to State laws and undergo public scrutiny through the 
State Historic Preservation Officer. 

In Wyoming, there is greater potential for adverse impact on Trail 
resources, particularly damage or obliteration of wagon wheel ruts. 
Highway paving, sand and gravel operations, open-pit mining, pipelines, 
and similar developments could cause such impacts. Where the Trail and 
such developments coincide on Federal lands, the development would be 
subject to the approval authority of the BLM. The comprehensive plan 
points out that management and protection of Trail resources should 
receive high priority in the individual resources management plans 
prepared by the BLM and Fish and Wildlife Service. An important aspect 
of such plans should include a requirement to review applicants plans of 
operation before approving such developments to take place on the public 
lands. That review could require mitigating measures to protect Trail 
resources. 



114 



If such developments take place on private lands, opportunities to 
mitigate these effects would be limited to volunteer efforts on the part of 
the landowners, subject to appliable State laws. 

The present rights of private interests would not be affected by this 
comprehensive plan. Participation by landowners to have their lands 
certified as a part of the Trail is strictly voluntary. Such certification 
would require certain agreements by the landowners which would 
perpetuate the purposes of the Trail. Ways in which landowners might 
agree to participate are outlined in the section on Cooperative 
Agreements. 

There may be some concern that designating the Trail on public lands 
may invite trespass when the original Trail extends onto adjacent private 
lands. Trespass may be prosecuted under State law, and the public may 
be cautioned against trespass by signs on public lands and/or by 
publication in brochures, maps, and guidebooks about the Trail. 

3. The 1978 feasibility study report for the Trail estimated certain costs 
that were shown for Alternative 2 in the EA. Costs are not shown for 
Alternative 3 because the Trail as enacted by the Congress differs in 
certain aspects from that proposed in the feasibility study and thus does 
not provide a ready basis for comparison. For example, it could not be 
determined what part of the estimated costs in the feasibility study were 
attributable to marking the Trail and what part was attributable to 
interpretive signs which are normally considered to be a part of 
development. The feasibility report includes considerable costs for land 
acquisition options which are essentially precluded by the enacted 
legislation. The feasibility study report also did not differentiate between 
non-Federal and Federal costs, which would be desirable if the costs were 
to be included in this plan. 

4. The Consultation and Coordination section of the EA lists the BLM 
Wyoming State Office. This office represented sub-organizational units of 
the BLM in Wyoming, but there was specific consultation with the BLM 
Lander Resource Area Office and the Rawlins District Office. Also, the 
listed State contacts, for example the Wyoming Recreation Commission, 
served as liaison with other affected agencies in each State. 

B. Selection of Alternative 

Alterntive 3 of the EA is selected as the action alternative based on the 
recommendations of the Trail's Advisory Council and on comments received 
about the draft plan and the intent of the National Trails System Act as 
amended. 

C. Finding of No Significant Impact 

Setting this comprehensive plan in motion will only partially be a Federal 
action in that non-Federal participation is invited. Only 47 miles of the 
1,300-mile Trail are significant segments on Federal lands. Thus the 
selected alternative is not considered to be a major Federal action, or to 
be highly controversial. The above discussion indicates that cumulative 
effects will not be substantial or can be mitigated. The plan will commit 
a Federal agency, probably the National Park Service (NPS), to future 
actions as the lead agency for coordinating implementation of the plan; 



115 



and also the National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, and Fish 
and Wildlife Service to managing significant Trail segments. 

At its metting in June 1981, the Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail 
Advisory Council passed a resolution that implementing this plan would 
not have an impact significant enough to require an environmental impact 
statement. 

Based on the above findings, an environmental impact statement will not 
be prepared for this plan. 

Approved: <£Lt*^^L. ^2ja3^at^eAl 2 ~ ZL C -SI 

Regional Director v ^ ^ Date 

Rocky Mountain Region 
National Park Service 



116 



ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT 
MORMON PIONEER NATIONAL HISTORIC TRAIL 
COMPREHENSIVE PLAN 



I PURPOSE AND NEED 

The Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail (the Trail) was established 
November 10, 1978 (92 Stat. 3511, 16 U.S.C. 1244 (a) (A). The Act 
states that the Trail's purpose is "* * * the identification and protection 
of the historic route and its historic remnants and artifacts for public use 
and enjoyment" along "* * * a route of approximately one thousand three 
hundred miles extending from Nauvoo, Illinois, to Salt Lake City, Utah, 
following the primary historical route of the Mormon Trail * * *" 

Section 5 (f) of the Act further implies that the purpose of a comprehen- 
sive plan is to guide the "management and use" of the Trail. Thus the 
Act recognizes that the plan fulfills a need to direct the "objectives and 
practices" that will both safeguard Trail resources and serve the public. 



II. ALTERNATIVES AND THEIR CONSEQUENCES 

The Environmental Assessment for The Mormon Trail , A Proposed National 
Historic Trail and Travelway prepared in August, 1976, by the former 
Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Heritage Conservation and Recreation 
Service) discussed a proposal for only marking roads and highways with 
directional and interpretive signs, with encouragement and assistance from 
the Secretary of the Interior to managing entities for further planning 
and development. That 1976 Assessment also considered but did not 
adopt alternatives that would have added hiking/biking trails along 
existing roadways or on cross-country routes, including options for 
acquisition and maintenance. 

The 1978 Act compromised on all these approaches. That law amended the 
National Trails System Act to bring national historic trails under the Act, 
and to provide: (1) the requirements for marking the trails; (2) the 
provision for including side trails as segments of historic trails as 
appropriate; and (3) the provision for historic trails to contain public-use 
facilities and to accommodate other uses as appropriate. However, the 
amended Act does not permit the use of appropriated funds for acquisition 
of historic trails lands. The following display of alternatives and their 
consequences compares the options of: (1) no action, (2) the 
recommendation of the 1978 Mormon Trail Study Report, and (3) the 
discretionary actions permitted by the 1978 Act. Alternative 3 is the 
action alternative on which the comprehensive plan is based. 

This Assessment evaluates the Trail's comprehensive plan as a whole . 
The plan suggests some locations for various levels of development at 
certain sites. However, the plan does not present details of exact 
locations, for specific structures, pathways, exhibits or other 
developments. Most of the developments are expected to be minor in 



117 



nature and will likely require only consultation under the procedures of 
Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act or Section 7 of the 
Endangered Species Act. Each managing agency would make such 
consultation with the State Historic Preservation Officer or the U.S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service, as appropriate. Further documentation under the 
National Environmental Policy Act will probably not be required, except 
perhaps in the case of larger structures such as a major visitor center. 
In that case, the managing agency would wish to prepare a separate 
environmental assessment of the situation. 



118 



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III. CONSULTATION AND COORDINATION 

Bureau of Land Management 

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 

Forest Service 

Illinois Department of Conservation 

Iowa State Conservation Commission 

Nebraska Department of Economic Development 

Wyoming Recreation Commission 

Utah Outdoor Recreation Agency 

Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail Advisory Council 



122 




X 

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123 



APPENDIX A 



NATIONAL TRAILS SYSTEM ACT » (1968) 
AN ACT To establish a national trails system, and for other purposes. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America in Congress assembled, 

SHORT TITLE 

Section 1. This Act may be cited as the "National Trails System 

Act". 

rt STATEMENT OF POLICY 

Sec. 2. (a) In order to provide for the ever-increasing outdoor 
recreation needs of an expanding population and in order to pro- 
mote the preservation ol, public access to, travel within, and enjoy- 
ment and appreciation of the open-air, outdoor areas and historic 
resources of the Nation, trails should be established (i) primarily, 
near the urban areas of the Nation, and (ii) secondarily, within 
scenic areas and along historic travel routes of the Nation, which 
are often more remotely located. _ t 

(b) the * purpose of this Act is to provide the means for attaining 
these objectives by instituting a national system of recreation, 
scenic and historic trails, by designating the Appalachian Trail and 
the Pacific Crest Trail as the initial components of that system, 
and by prescribing the methods by which, and standards according 
to which, additional components may be added to the system. 

NATIONAL TRAILS SYSTEM 

Sec. 3. The national system of trails shall be composed of— 

(a) National recreation trails, established as provided in sec- 
tion 4 of this Act, which will provide a variety of outdoor 
recreation uses in or reasonably accessible to urban areas : 

(b) National scenic trails, established as provided in section 5 
of this Act. which will be extended trails so located as to 
provide for maximum outdoor recreation potential and for the 
conservation and enjoyment of the nationally significant 
scenic, historic, natural, or cultural qualities of the areas 
through which such trails may pass. 

(c) National historic trails, established as provided in section 
5 of this Act, which will be extended trails which follow as 
closely as possible and practicable the original trails or routes 
of travel of national historical significance. Designation of such 
trails or routes shall be continuous, but the established or 
developed trail, and the acquisition thereof, need not be con- 



'The National Trails Svslem Act (Hi US C 12U-124D), a* set forth her* in. contains Public Law 
90-543 (Oct 2. 19GM and the amendment! made by Public Law 94-521 (Oct 17, 1976). Public Law 
95-248 (Mar. 21. 197fei. and Public Law yi-(i25 (Nov. 1U, 19781 

•The word '"the" at the bopnning of aeclion 2fb) should be capitalized, but was erroneously 
enacted with the lowercase spelling 



124 



tinuous onsite. National historic trails shall have as their pur- 
pose the identification and protection of the historic route and 
its historic remnants and artifacts for public use and enjoy- 
ment. Only those selected land and water based components of 
an historic trail which are on federally owned lands and which 
meet the national historic trail criteria established in this Act, 
are established as initial Federal protection components of a 
national historic trail. The appropriate Secretary may subse- 
quently certify other lands as protected segments of an historic 
trail upon application from State or local governmental agen- 
cies or private interests involved if such segments meet the 
national historic trail criteria established in this Act and such 
criteria supplementary thereto as the appropriate Secretary 
may prescribe, and are administered by such agenices or inter- 
ests without expense to the United States. 

(d) Connecting or side trails, established as provided in sec- 
tion 6 of this Act, which will provide additional points of public 
access to national recreation, national scenic or national his- 
toric trails or which will provide connections between such 
trails. 
The Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of Agriculture, in 
consultation with appropriate governmental agencies and public 
and private organizations, shall establish a uniform marker for the 
national trails system. 

NATIONAL RECREATION TRAILS 

Sec. 4. (a) The Secretary of the Interior, or the Secretary of 
Agriculture where lands administered by him are involved, may 
establish and designate national recreation trails, with the consent 
of the Federal agency, State, or political subdivision having juris- 
diction over the lands involved, upon finding that — 

(i) such trails are reasonably accessible to urban areas, and, 
or 

(ii) such trails meet the criteria established in this Act and 
such supplementary criteria as he may prescribe, 
(b) As provided in this section, trails within park, forest, and 
other recreation areas administered by the Secretary of the Interi- 
or or the Secretary of Agriculture or in other federally adminis- 
tered areas may be established and designated as "National Recre- 
ation Trails" by the appropriate Secretary and, when no Federal 
land acquisition is involved — 

(i) trails in or reasonably accessible to urban areas may be 
designated as "National Recreation Trials" by the Secretary of 
the Interior with the consent of the States, their political sub- 
divisions, or other appropriate administering agencies, and 

(ii) trails within park, forest, and other recreation areas 
owned or administered by States may be designated as "Na- 
tional Recreation Trails" by the Secretary of the Interior with 
the consent of the State. 

NATIONAL SCENIC AND NATIONAL HISTORIC TRAILS 

Sec. 5. (a) National scenic and national historic trails shall be 
authorized and designated .pnly by Act of Congress. There are 



125 



hereby established the following National Scenic and National His- 
toric Trails: 

(1) The Appalachian National Scenic Trail, a trail of approxi- 
mately two thousand miles extending generally along the Appala- 
chian Mountains from Mount Kytahdin, Maine, to Springer Moun- 
tain, Georgia. Insofar as practicable, the right-of-way for such trail 
shall comprise the trail depicted on the maps identified as "Nation- 
wide System of Trails, Proposed Appalachian Trail, 
NST-AT-101-May 1967", which shall be on file and available for 
public inspection in the office of the Director of the National Park 
Service. Where practicable, such rights-of-way shall include lands 
protected for it under agreements in effect as of the date of enact- 
ment of this Act, to which Federal agencies and State were parties. 
The Appalachian 1 Trail shall be administered primarily as a foot- 
path by the Secretary of the Interior, in consultation with the 
Secretary of Agriculture. 

(2) The Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail, a trail of approxi- 
mately two thousand three hundred fifty miles, extending from the 
Mexican-California border northward generally along the moun- 
tain ranges of the west coast States to the Canadian-Washington 
border near Lake Ross, following the route as generally depicted on 
the map, identified as "Nationwide System of Trails, Proposed 
Pacific Crest Trail, NST-PC-103-May 1967" which shall be on file 
and available for public inspection in the office of the Chief of the 
Forest Service. The Pacific Crest Trail shall be administered by the 
Secretary of Agriculture, in consultation with the Secretary of the 
Interior. 

(3) The Oregon National Historic Trail, a route of approximately 
two thousand miles extending from near Independence, Missouri, 
to the vicinity of Portland, Oregon, following a route as depicted on 
maps identified as "Primary Route of the Oregon Trail 1841-1848", 
in the Department of the Interior's Oregon Trail study report dated 
April 1977, and which shall be on file and available for public 
inspection in the office of the Director of the National Park Serv- 
ice. The trail shall be administered by the Secretary of the Interior. 

(4) The Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail, a route of ap- 
proximately one thousand three hundred miles extending from 
Nauvoo, Illinois, to Salt Lake City, Utah, following the primary 
historical route of the Mormon Trail as generally depicted on a 
map, identified as. "Mormon Trail Vicinity Map, figure 2" in the 
Department of the Interior Mormon Trail study report dated 
March 1977, and which shall be on file and available for public 
inspection in the office of the Director, National Park Service, 
Washington, D.C. The trail shall be administered by the Secretary 
of the Interior. 

(5) The Continental Divide National Scenic Trail, a trail of ap- 
proximately thirty-one hundred miles, extending from the Mon- 
tana-Canada border to the New Mexico-Mexico border, following 
the approximate route depicted on the map, identified as "Proposed 
Continental Divide National Scenic Trail" in the Department of 
the Interior Continental Divide Trail study report dated March 
1977 and which shall be on file and available for public inspection 



'The words "National Scenic" were apparently unintentionally omitted in the laM aentence of 
paragraph (1) when they were inserted elaewhere by Public Law 95-625. 



126 



in the office of the Chief, Forest Service, Washington, D.C. The 
Continental Divide National Scenic Trail shall be administered by 
the Secretary of Agriculture in consultation with the Secretary of 
the Interior. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 7(c), the use 
of motorized vehicles on roads which will be designated segments of 
the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail shall be permitted in 
accordance with regulations prescribed by the appropriate Secre- 
tary. 

(6) The Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail, a trail of ap- 
proximately three thousand seven hundred miles, extending from 
Wood River, Illinois, to the mouth of the Columbia River in 
Oregon, following the outbound and inbound routes of the Lewis 
and Clark Expedition depicted on maps identified as, "Vicinity 
Map, Lewis and Clark Trail" study report dated April 1977. The 
map shall be on file and available for public inspection in the office 
of the Director, National Park Service, Washington, D.C. The trail 
shall be administered by the Secretary of the Interior. 

(7) The Iditarod National Historic Trail, a route of approximately 
two thousand miles extending from Seward, Alaska to Nome, 
Alaska, following the routes as depicted on maps identified as 
"Seward-Nome Trail", in the Department of the Interior's study 
report entitled "The Iditarod Trail (Seward-Nome Route) and other 
Alaskan Gold Rush Trails" dated September 1977. The map shall 
be on file and available for public inspection in the office of the 
Director, National Park Service, Washington, D.C. The trail shall 
be administered by the Secretary of the Interior. 

(b) The Secretary of the Interior, through the agency most likely 
to administer such traH, and the Secretary of Agriculture where 
lands administered by him are involved, shall make such addition- 
al studies as are herein or may hereafter be authorized by the 
Congress for the purpose of determining the feasibility and desir- 
ability of designating other trails as national scenic or national 
historic trails. Such studies shall be made in consultation with the 
heads of other Federal agencies administering lands through which 
such additional proposed trails would pass and in cooperation with 
interested interstate, State, and local governmental agencies, 
public and private organizations, and landowners and land users 
concerned. The studies listed in subsection (c) of this section shall 
be completed and submitted to the Congress, with recommenda- 
tions as to the suitability of trail designation, not later than three 
complete fiscal years from the date of enactment of their addition 
to this subsection, or from the date of enactment of this sentence, 
whichever is later. Such studies, when submitted, shall be printed 
as a House or Senate document, and shall include, but not be 
limited to: 

(1) the proposed route of such trail (including maps and 
illustrations); 

(2) the areas adjacent to such trails, to be utilized for scenic, 
historic, natural, cultural, or developmental, purposes; 

(3) the characteristics which, in the judgment of the appro- 
priate Secretary, make the proposed trail worthy of designa- 
tion as a national scenic or national historic trail; and in the 
case of national historic trails the report shall include the 
recommendation of the Secretary of the Interior's National 



127 



Park System Advisory Board as to the national historic signifi- 
cance based on the criteria developed under the Historic Sites 
Act of 1H35 (49 Stat C>('>G, U.S.C. -Mil): 1 

(4) the current status of land ownership and current and 
potential use along the designated route; 

(5) the estimated cost of acquisition of lands or interest in 
lands, if any; 

(6) the plans for developing and maintaining the trail and 
the cost thereof; 

(7) the proposed Federal administering agency (which, in the 
case of a national scenic or national historic trail wholly or 
substantially within a national forest, shall be the Department 
of Agriculture); 

(8) the extent to which a State or its political subdivisions 
and public and private organizations might reasonably be ex- 
pected to participate in acquiring the necessary lands and in 
the administration thereof; 

(9) the relative uses of the lands involved, including: the 
number of anticipated visitor-days for the entire length of, as 
well as for segments of, such trail; the number of months 
which such trail, or segments thereof, will be open for recrea- 
tion purposes; the economic and social benefits which might 
accrue from alternate land uses; and the estimated man-years 
of civilian employment and expenditures expected for the pur- 
poses of maintenance, supervision, and regulation of such trail; 

(10) the anticipated impact of public outdoor recreation use 
on the preservation of a proposed national historic trail and its 
related historic and archeological features and settings, includ- 
ing the measures proposed to ensure evaluation and preserva- 
tion of the values that contribute to their national historic 
significance; and 

(11) to qualify for designation as a national historic trail, a 
trail must meet all three of the following criteria: 

(A) It must be a trail or route established by historic use 
and must be historically significant as a result of that use. 
The route need not currently exist as a discernible trail to 
qualify, but its location must be sufficiently known to 
permit evaluation of public recreation and historical inter- 
est potential. A designated trail should generally accurate- 
ly follow the historic route, but may deviate somewhat on 
occasion of necessity to avoid difficult routing through sub- 
sequent development, or to provide some route variation 
offering a more pleasurable recreational experience. Such 
deviations shall be so noted on site. Trail segments no 
longer possible to travel by trail due to subsequent devel- 
opment as motorized transportation routes may be desig- 
nated and marked onsite as segments which link to the 
historic trail. 

(B) It must be of national significance with respect to 
any of several broad facets of American history, such as 
trade and commerce, migration and settlement, or military 
campaigns. To qualify as nationally significant, historic 



■The reference lo 16 VSC was erroneously omitted when pars£raph (3) of this »ubaection 
was amended by section Solill) of Public Law 3^-6'2o 



128 



use of the trail must have had a far-reaching effect on 
broad patterns of American culture. Trails significant in 
the history of native Americans may be included. 

(C) It must have significant potential for public recre- 
ational use or historical interest based on historic interpre- 
tation and appreciation. The potential for such use is gen- 
erally greater along roadless segments developed as histor- 
ic trails, and at historic sites associated with the trail. The 
presence of recreation potential not related to historic ap- 
preciation is not sufficient justification for designation 
under this category, 
(c) The following routes shall be studied in accordance with the 
objectives outlined in subsection (b) of this section: 

(1) Continental Divide Trail, a three-thousand-one-hundred-mile 
trail extending from near the Mexican border in southwestern New 
Mexico northward generally along the Continental Divide to the 
Canadian border in Glacier National Park. 

(2) Potomac Heritage Trail, an eight-hundred-and-twenty-five- 
mile trail extending generally from the mouth of the Potomac 
River to its sources in Pennsylvania and West Virginia, including 
the one-hundred-and-seventy-mile Chesapeake and Ohio Canal tow- 
path. 

(3) Old Cattle Trails of the Southwest from the vicinity of San 
Antonio, Texas, approximately eight hundred miles through Okla- 
homa via Baxter Springs and Chetopa, Kansas, to Fort Scott, 
Kansas, including the Chisholm Trail, from the vicinity of San 
Antonio or Cuero, Texas, approximately eight hundred miles north 
through Oklahoma to Abilene, Kansas. 

(4) Lewis and Clark Trail, from Wood River, Illinois, to the 
Pacific Ocean in Oregon, following both the outbound and inbound 
routes of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. 

(5) Natchez Trace, from Nashville, Tennessee, approximately six 
hundred miles to Natchez, Mississippi. 

(6) North Country Trail, from the Appalachian Trail in Vermont, 
approximately three thousand two hundered miles through the 
States of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin, and 
Minnesota, to the Lewis and Clark Trail in North Dakota. 

(7) Kittanning Trail from Shirleysburg in Huntingdon County to 
Kittanning, Armstrong County, Pennsylvania. 

(8) Orgeon Trail, from Independence, Missouri, approximately 
two thousand miles to near Fort Vancover, Washington. 

(9) Santa Fe Trail, from Independence, Missouri, approximately 
eight hundred miles to Sante Fe, New Mexico. 1 

(10) Long Trail, extending two hundred and fifty-five miles from 
the Massachusetts border northward through Vermont to the Ca- 
nadian Border. 

(11) Mormon Trail, extending from Nauvoo, Illinois, to Salt Lake 
City, Utah, through the States of Iowa, Nebraska, and Wyoming. 

(12) Gold Rush Trails in Alaska. 

(13) Mormon Battalion Trail, extending two thousand miles from 
Mount Pisgah, Iowa, through Kansas, Colorado, New Mexico, and 
Arizona to Los Angeles, California. 



'The word "Santa Fe" is erroneously spelled "Sante Fe" the second time it appears. 



129 



(14) El Camino Real from St. Augustine to San Mateo, Florida, 
approximately 20 miles along the southern boundary of the St. 
Johns River from Fort Caroline National Memorial to the St. Au- 
gustine National Park Monument. 

(15) Bartram Trail, extending through the States of Georgia, 
North Carolina, South Carolina, Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mis- 
sissippi, and Tennessee. 

(16) Daniel Boone Trail, extending from the vicinity of States- 
ville, North Carolina, to Fort Boonesborough State Park, Kentucky. 

(17) Desert Trail, extending form the Canadian border through 
parts of Idaho, Washington, Oregon, Nevada, California, and 
Arizona, to the Mexican border. 

(18) Dominguez-Escalante Trail, extending approximately two 
thousand miles along the route of the 1776 expedition led by 
Father Francisco Atanasio Dominguez and Father Silvestre Velez 
de Escalante, originating in Santa Fe, New Mexico; proceeding 
northwest along the San Juan, Dolores, Gunnison, and White 
Rivers in Colorado; thence westerly to Utah Lake; thence south- 
ward to Arizona and returning to Santa Fe. 

(19) Florida Trail, extending north from Everglades National 
Park, including the Big Cypress Swamp, the Kissimme Prairie, the 
Withlacoochee State Forest, Ocala National Forest, Osceola Nation- 
al Forest, and Black Water River State Forest, said completed trail 
to be approximately one thousand three hundered miles long, of 
which over four hundred miles of trail have already been built. 

(20) Indian Nations Trail, extending from the Red River in Okla- 
homa approximately two hundred miles northward through the 
former Indian nations to the Oklahoma-Kansas boundary line. 

(21) Nez Perce Trail extending from the vicinity of Wallowa 
Lake, Oregon, to Bear Paw Mountain, Montana. 

(22) Pacific Northwest Trail, extending approximately one thou- 
sand miles from the Continental Divide in Glacier National Park, 
Montana, to the Pacific Ocean beach of Olympic National Park, 
Washington, by way of — 

(A) Flatnead National Forest and Kootenai National Forest 
in the State of Montana; 

(B) Kaniksu National Forest in the State of Idaho; and 

(C) Colville National Forest, Okanogan National Forest, Pa- 
sayten Wilderness Area, Ross" Lake National Recreation Area, 
North Cascades National Park, Mount Baker, the Skagit River, 
Deception Pass, Whidbey Island, Olympic National Forest, and 
Olympic National Park in the State of Washington. 

(20) Overmountain Victory Trail, extending from the vicinity of 
Elizabethton, Tennessee, to Kings Mountain National Military 
Park, South Carolina. 1 

(d) The Secretary charged with the administration of each respec- 
tive trail shall, within one year of the date of the addition of any 
national scenic or notional historic trail to the system, and within 
sixty days of the enactment of this sentence for the Appalachian 
and Pacific Crest National Scenic Trails, establish an advisory 
council for each such trail, each of which councils shall expire ten 
years from the date of its establishment. The appropriate Secretary 
shall consult with such council from time to time with respect to 



'Paragraph (20), added by aertion S5M13I of the National Parka and Recreation Act of 1978 
(Public Law SIr-625). ahould be numbered paragraph (23). 



130 



matters relating to the trail, including the selection of rights-of- 
way, standards for the erection and maintenance of markers along 
the trail, and the administration of the trail. The members of each 
advisory* council, which shall not exceed thirty-five in number, 
shall serve for a term of two years and without compensation as 
such, but the Secretary may pay, upon vouchers signed by the 
chairman of the council, the expenses reasonably incurred by the 
council and its members in carrying out their responsibilities 
under this section. Members of each council shall be appointed by 
the appropriate Secretary as follows: 

(i) a member appointed to represent each Federal departs 
ment or independent agency administering lands through 
which the trail route passes, and each appointee shall be the 
person designated by the head of such department or agency; 
(ii) a member appointed to represent each State through 
which the trail passes, and such appointments shall be made 
from recommendations of the Governors of such States; 

(iii) one or more members appointed to represent private 
organizations, including corporate and individual landowners 
and land users, which in the opinion of the Secretary, have an 
established and recognized interest in the trail, and such ap- 
pointments shall be made from recommendations of the heads 
of such organizations: Provided, That the Appalachian Trail 
Conference shall be represented by a sufficient number of per- 
sons to represent the various sections of the country through 
which the Appalachian Trail passes; and 

(iv) the Secretary shall designate one member to be chair- 
man and shall fill vacancies in the same manner as the origi- 
nal appointment, 
(e) Within two complete fiscal years of the date of enactment of 
legislation designating a national scenic trail, except for the Conti- 
nental Divide National Scenic Trail, as part of the system, and 
within two complete fiscal years of the date of enactment of this 
subsection for the Pacific Crest and Appalachian Trails, the respon- 
sible Secretary shall, after full consultation with affected Federal 
land managing agencies, the Governors of the affected States, the 
relevant advisory council established pursuant to section 5(d), and 
the Appalachian Trail Conference in the case of the Appalachian 
Trail, submit to the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs of 
the House of Representatives and the Committee on Energy and 
Natural Resources of the Senate, a comprehensive plan for the 
acquisition, management, development, and use of the trail, includ- 
ing but not limited to, the following items: 

(1) specific objectives and practices to be observed in the 
management of the trail, including the identification of all 
significant natural, historical, and cultural resources to be pre- 
served (along with high potential historic sites and high poten- 
tial route segments in the case of national historic trails), 
details of anticipated cooperative agreements to be consummat- 
ed with other entities, and an identified carrying capacity of 
the trail and a plan for its implementation; 

(2) an acquisition or protection plan, by fiscal year, for all 
lands to be acquired by fee title or lesser interest, along with 



131 



detailed explanation of anticipated necessary cooperative 
agreements for any lands not to be acquired; and 

(3) general and site-specific development plans including an- 
ticipated costs, 
(f) Within two complete fiscal years of the date of enactment of 
legislation designating a national historic trail or the Continental 
Divide National Scenic Trail as part of the system, the responsible 
Secretary shall, after full consultation with affected Federal land 
managing agencies, the Governors of the affected States, and the 
relevant Advisory Council established pursuant to section 5(d) of 
this Act, submit to the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs 
of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Energy and 
Natural Resources of the Senate, a comprehensive plan for the 
management, and use of the trail, including but not limited to, the 
following items: 

(1) specific objectives and practices to be observed in the 
management of the trail, including the identification of all 
significant natural, historical, and cultural resources to be pre- 
served, details of any anticipated cooperative agreements to be 
consummated with State and local government agencies or 
pri%'ate interests, and for national scenic or national recre- 
ational trails an identified carrying capacity of The trail and a 
plan for its implementaton; and 

(2) the process to be followed by the appropriate Secretary to 
implement the marking requirements established in section 
7(c) of this Act. 

CONNECTING AND SIDE TRAILS 

Sec. 6. Connecting or side trails within park, forest, and other 
recreation areas administered by the Secretary of the Interior or 
Secretary of Agriculture may be established, designated, and 
marked as components of a national recreation, national scenic or 
national historic trail. When no Federal land acquisition is in- 
volved, connecting or side trails may be located across lands admin- 
istered by interstate, State, or local governmental agencies with 
their consent: Provided, That such trails provide additional points 
of public access to national recreation, national scenic, or national 
historic trails. 

ADMINISTRATION AND DEVELOPMENT 

Sec. 7. (a) Pursuant to section 5(a), the appropriate Secretary 
shall select the rights-of-way for national scenic and national his- 
toric trails and shall publish notice thereof in the Federal Register, 
together with appropriate maps and descriptions: Provided, That in 
selecting the rights-of-way full consideration shall be given to mini- 
mizing the adverse effects upon the adjacent landowner or user 
and his operation. Development end management of each segment 
of the National Trails System shall be designed to harmonize with 
and complement any established multiple-use plans for that specif- 
ic area in order to insure continued maximum benefits from the 
land. The location and width of such rights-of-way across Federal 
lands under the jurisdiction of another Federal agency shall be by 
agreement between the head of that agency and the appropriate 



132 



Secretary. In selecting rights-of-way for trail purposes, the Secre- 
tary shall obtain the advice and assistance of the States, local 
governments, private organizations, and landowners and land users 
concerned. 

(h) After publication of notice in the Federal Register, together 
with appropriate maps and descriptions, the Secretary charged 
with the administration of a national scenic or national historic 
trail may relocate segments of a national scenic or national histor- 
ic trail right-of-way, with the concurrence of the head of the Feder- 
al agency having jurisdiction over the lands involved, upon a deter- 
mination that: (i) Such a relocation is necessary to preserve the 
purposes for which the trail was established, or (ii) the relocation is 
necessary to promote a sound land management program in ac- 
cordance with established multiple-use principles: Provided, That a 
substantial relocation of the rights-of-way for such trail shall be by 
Act of Congress. 

(c) National scenic or national historic trails may contain camp- 
sites, shelters, and related-public-use facilities. Other uses along 
the trail, which will not substantially interfere with the nature and 
purposes of the trail, may be permitted by the Secretary charged 
with the administration of the trail. Reasonable efforts shall be 
made to provide sufficient access opportunities to such trails and, 
to the extent practicable, efforts shall be made to avoid activities 
incompatible with the purposes for which such trails were estab- 
lished. The use of motorized vehicles by the general public along 
any national scenic trail shall be prohibited and nothing in this 
Act shall be construed as authorizing the use of motorized vehicles 
within the natural and historical areas of the national park 
system, the national wildlife refuge system, the national wilderness 
preservation system where they are presently prohibited or on 
other Federal lands where trails are designated as being closed to 
such use by the appropriate Secretary: Provided, That the Secre- 
tary charged with the administration of such trail shall establish 
regulations which shall authorize the use of motorized vehicles 
when, in his judgment, such vehicles are necessary to meet emer- 
gencies or to enable adjacent landowners or land users to have 
reasonable access to their lands or timber rights: Provided further, 
That private lands included in the national recreation, national 
scenic, or national historic trails by cooperative agreement of a 
landowner shall not preclude such owner from using motorized 
vehicles on or across such trails or adjacent lands from time to 
time in accordance with regulations to be established by the appro- 
priate Secretary. Where a national historic trail follows existing 
public roads, developed righis-of-way or waterways, and similar 
features of man's nonhistorically related development, approximat- 
ing the original location of a historic route, such segments may be 
marked to facilitate retracement of the historic route, and where a 
national historic trail parallels an existing public road, such road 
may be marked to commemorate the historic route. The Secretary 
of the Interior and the Secretary of Agriculture, in consultation 
with appropriate governmental agencies and public and private 
organizations, shall establish a uniform marker, including thereon 
an appropriate and distinctive symbol for each national recreation, 
national scenic, and national historic trail. Where the trails cross 



133 



lands administered by Federal agencies such markers shall be 
erected at appropriate points along the trails and maintained by 
the Federal agency administering the trail in accordance with 
standards established by the appropriate Secretary and where the 
trails cross non-Federal lands, in accordance with written coopera- 
tive agreements, the appropriate Secretary shall provide such uni- 
form markers to cooperating agencies and shall require such agen- 
cies to erect and maintain them in accordance with the standards 
established. 

(d) Within the exterior boundaries of areas under their adminis- 
tration that are included in the right-of-way selected for a national 
recreation, national scenic, or national historic trail, the heads of 
Federal agencies may use lands for trail purposes and may acquire 
lands or interests in lands by written cooperative agreement, dona- 
tion, purchase with donated or appropriated funds or exchange. 

(e) Where the lands included in a national scenic or national 
historic trail right-of-way are outside of the exterior boundaries of 
federally administered areas, the Secretary charged with the ad- 
ministration of such trail shall encourage the States or local gov- 
ernments involved (1) to enter into written cooperative agreements 
with landowners, private organizations, and individuals to provide 
the necessary tra'l right-of-way, or (2) to acquire such lands or 
interests therein to be utilized as segments of the national scenic or 
national historic trail: Provided, That if the State or local govern- 
ments fail to enter into such written cooperative agreements or to 
acquire such lands or interests therein after notice of the selection 
of the right-of-way is published, the impropriate Secretary may (i) 
enter into such agreements with landowners, States, local govern- 
ments, private organizations, and individuals for the use of lands 
for trail purpose*, or (ii) acquire private lands or interests therein 
by donation, purchase with donated or appropriated funds or ex- 
change in accordance with the provisions of subsection (g) of this 
section. The lands involved in such rights-of-way should be ac- 
quired in fee, if other methods of public control are not sufficient 
to assure their use for the purpose for which they are acquired: 
Provided, That if the Secretary charged with the administration of 
such trail permanently relocates the right-of-way and disposes of 
all title or interest in the land, the original owner, or his heirs or 
assigns, shall be offered, by notice given at the former owner's last 
known address, the right of first refusal at the fair market price. 

(f) The Secretary of the Interior, in the exercise of his exchange 
authority, may accept title to any non-Federal property within the 
right-of-way and in exchange therefor he may convey to the grant- 
or of such property and federally owned property under his juris- 
diction which is located in the State wherein such property is 
located and which he classifies as suitable for exchange or other 
disposal. The values of the properties so exchanged either shall be 
approximately equal, or if they are not approximately equal the 
values shall be equalized by the payment of cash to the grantor or 
to the Secretary as the circumstances require. The Secretary of 
Agriculture, in the exercise of his exchange authority, may utilize 
authorities and procedures available to him in connection with 
exchanges of national forest lands. 



134 



(g) The appropriate Secretary may utilize condemnation proceed- 
ings without the consent of the owner to acquire private lands or 
interests therein pursuant to this section only in cases where, in 
his judgment, all reasonable efforts to acquire such lands or inter- 
ests therein by negotiation have failed, and in such cases he shall 
acquire only such title as, in his judgment, is reasonably necessary 
to provide passage across such lands: Provided, That condemnation 
proceedings may not be utilized to acquire fee title or lesser inter- 
ests to more than an average of one hundred and twenty-five acres 
per mile. Money appropriated for Federal purposes from the land 
and water conservation fund shall, without prejudice to appropri- 
ations from other sources, be available to Federal departments for 
the acquisition of lands or interests in lands for the purposes of 
this Act. For national historic trails, direct Federal acquisition for 
trail purposes shall be limited to those areas indicated by the study 
report or by the comprehensive plan as high potential route seg- 
ments or high potential historic sites. 

Ch) The Secretary charged with the administration of a national 
recreation, national scenic, or national historic trail shall provide 
for the development and maintenance of such trails within federal- 
ly administered areas and shall cooperate with and encourage the 
States to operate, develop, and maintain portions of such trails 
which are located outside the boundaries of federally administered 
areas. When deemed to be in the public interest, such Secretary 
may enter written cooperative agreements with the States or their 
political subdivisions, landowners, private organizations, or individ- 
uals to operate, develop, and maintain any portion of a national 
scenic or national historic trail either within or outside a federally 
administered area. 

Whenever the Secretary of the Interior makes any conveyance of 
land under any of the public land laws, he may reserve a right-of- 
way for trails to the extent he deems necessary to carry out the 
purposes of this Act. 

(i) The appropriate Secretary, with the concurrence of the heads 
of any other Federal agencies administering lands through which a 
national recreation, national scenic, or national historic trail 
passes, and after consultation with the States, local governments, 
and organizations concerned, may issue regulations, which may be 
revised from time to time, governing the use, protection, manage- 
ment, development, and administration of trails of the national 
trails system. In order to maintain good conduct on and along the 
trails located within federally administered areas and to provide 
for the proper government and protection of such trails, the Secre- 
tary of the Interior and the Secretary of Agriculture shall prescribe 
and publish such uniform regulations as they deem necessary and 
any person who violates such regulations shall be guilty of a misde- 
meanor, and may be punished by a fine of not more than $500, or 
by imprisonment not exceeding six months, or by both such fine 
and imprisonment. 

STATE AND METROPOLITAN AREA TRAILS 

Sec. 8. (a) The Secretary of the Interior is directed to encourage 
States to consider, in their comprehensive statewide outdoor recre- 



135 



ation plans and proposals for financial assistance for State and 
local projects submitted pursuant to the Land and Water Conserva- 
tion Fund Act, needs and opportunities for establishing park, 
forest, and other recreation and historic trails on lands owned or 
administered by States, and recreation trails on lands in or near 
urban areas. 

The Secretary is also directed to encourage States to consider, in 
their comprehensive statewide historic preservation plans and pro- 
posals for financial assistance for State, local, and private projects 
submitted pursuant to the Act of October 15, 1966 (80 Stat. 915), as 
amended, needs and opportunities for establishing historic trails. 
He is further directed, in accordance with the authority contained 
in the Act of May 28, 1963 (77 Stat. 49), to encourage States, 
political subdivisions, and private interests, including nonprofit or- 
ganizations, to establish such trails. 

(b) The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development is directed, 
in administering the program of comprehensive urban planning 
and assistance under section 701 of the Housing Act of 1954, to 
encourage the planning of recreation trails in connection with the 
recreation and transportation planning for metropolitan and other 
urban areas. He is further directed, in administering the urban 
open-space program under title VII of the Housing Act of 1961, to 
encourage such recreation trails. 

(c) The Secretary of Agriculture is directed, in accordance with 
authority vested in him, to encourage States and local agencies and 
private interests to establish such trails. 

(d) Such trails may be designated and suitably marked as parts 
of the nationwide system of trails by the States, their political 
subdivisions, or other appropriate administering agencies with the 
approval of the Secretary of the Interior. 

RIGHTS-OF-WAY AND OTHER PROPERTIES 

Sec. 9. (a) The Secretary of the Interior or the Secretary of 
Agriculture as the case may be, may grant easements and rights-of- 
way upon, over, under, across, or along any component of the 
national trails system in accordance with the laws applicable to the 
national park system and the national forest system, respectively: 
Provided, That any conditions contained in such easements and 
rights-of-way shall be related to the policy and purposes of this Act. 

(b) The Department of Defense, the Department of Transporta- 
tion, the Interstate Commerce Commission, the Federal Communi- 
cations Commission, the Federal Power Commission, and other 
Federal agencies having jurisdiction or control over or information 
concerning the use, abandonment, or disposition of road ways, util- 
ity rights-of-way, or other properties which may be suitable for the 
purpose of improving or expanding the national trails system shall 
cooperate with the Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of 
Agriculture in order to assure, to the extent practicable, that any 
such properties having values suitable for trail purposes may be 
made available for such use. 



136 



AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS 

Sex;. 10.' There are hereby authorized to be appropriated for the 
acquisition of lands or interests in lands not more than $5,000,000 
for the Appalachian National Scenic Trail and not more than 
$500,000 for the Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail. From the 
appropriations authorized for fiscal year 1979 and succeeding fiscal 
years pursuant to the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act (78 
Stat. 897), as amended, not more than the following amounts may 
be expended for the acquisition of lands and interests in lands 
authorized to be acquired pursuant to the provisions of this Act 

(a) Tne Appalachian National Scenic Trail, not to exceed 
$30,000,000 for fiscal year 1979, $30,000,000 for fiscal year 1980, and 
$30,000,000 for fiscal year 1981, except that the difference between 
the foregoing amounts and the actual appropriations in any one 
fiscal year shall be available for appropriation in subsequent fiscal 
years. It is the express intent of the Congress that the Secretary 
should substantially complete the land acquisition program neces- 
sary to insure the protection of the Trail within three complete 
fiscal years following the date of enactment of this sentence. Until 
the entire acquisition program is completed, he shall transmit in 
writing at the close of each fiscal year the following information to 
the Committee on Energy' and Natural Resources of the Senate and 
to the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs of the House of 
Representatives: 

(A) the amount of land acquired during the fiscal year and 
the amount expended therefor; 

(B) the estimated amount of land remaining to be acquired; 
and 

(C) the amount of land planned for acquisition in the ensuing 
fiscal year and the estimated cost thereof. 

(b) For the purposes of Public Law 95-42 (91 Stat. 211), the lands 
and interests therein acquired pursuant to this section shall be 
deemed to qualify for funding under the provisions of section 1, 
clause 2, of said Act. 

(c) There is hereby authorized to be appropriated such sums as 
may be necessary to implement the provisions of this Act relating 
to the trails designated by paragraph 5(a) (3), (4), (5), (6), and (7): 
Provided, That no such funds are authorized to be appropriated 
prior to October 1, 1979: And provided further, That notwithstand- 
ing any other provisions of this Act or any other provisions of law, 
no funds may be expended for the acquisition of lands or interests 
in lands for the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail, the 
Oregon National Historic Trail, the Mormon Pioneer National His- 
toric Trail, the Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail, and the 
Iditarod National Historic Trail. 



' The '\»lT frhich appears at the beginning of the wcond paragraph was apparently intended 
to be inserted at the beginning of the first paragraph. See paragraph (5; of Public Law 95-248 
(Mar. 21, 1978X 



137 



APPENDIX B 
CHARTER 
MORMON PIONEER NATIONAL HISTORIC TRAIL ADVISORY COUNCIL 

1. The official designation of the committee is the Mormon Pioneer 
National Historic Trail Advisory Council. 

2. The purpose of the Council is to consult with the Secretary of the 
Interior in regard to matters relating to the Mormon Pioneer National 
Historic Trail, including the selection of rights-of-way, standards for the 
erection and maintenance of markers along the Trail, and the admini- 
stration of the Trail. 

3. The Council will require approximately ten years to complete its 
work. 

4. The Council reports to the Regional Director, Rocky Mountain 
Regional Office, National Park Service, 655 Parfet Street, Denver, 
Colorado 80225. 

5. Support for the Council is provided by the National Park Service, 
Department of the Interior. 

6. The duties of the Council are solely advisory and are as stated in 
paragraph 2 above. 

7. The estimated annual operating cost of this committee is $20,000, 
which includes the cost of 1/4 man-year of staff support. 

8. The Council meets approximately 3 times a year. 

9. The Council will terminate 10 years from the date of its 
establishment. 

10. The members of the Advisory Council shall not exceed 35 in number, 
each appointed for a term of 2 years by the Secretary of the Interior as 
follows: 

a. a member appointed to represent each Federal department or 
independent agency administering lands through which the Trail 
passes, and each appointee shall be the person designated by the 
head of such department or agency; 

b. a member appointed to represent each State through which the 
Trail passes, and such appointments shall be made from recommenda- 
tions of the Governors of such States; 

c. one or more members appointed to represent private organiza- 
tions, including corporate and individual landowners and land users, 
that, in the opinion of the Secretary, have an established and 
recognized interest in the Trail, and such appointments shall be 
made from recommendations of the heads of such organizations. 

138 



The Secretary shall designate one member of the Council to be chairman. 

The members shall serve without compensation as such, but the Secretary 
may pay to non-federal members, upon vouchers signed by the chairman 
of the Council, the expenses reasonably incurred by the Council and its 
members in carrying out their responsibilities. 

11. The Council is established pursuant to Section 14(d) of Public Law 
95-625 amending Section 5(d) of the National Trails System Act. 



Sgd. James G. Watt 



Secretary of the Interior 

Date Signed: May 29, 1981 

Date Charter Filed: June 10, 1981 



139 



APPENDIX C 









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Nauvoo Historic District - Iowa 
Oregon Trail Ruts - Wyoming 
Independence Rock - Wyoming 
South Pass - Wyoming 



Illinois - 
Nebraska 



Wyoming - 



Utah 



NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES 
Carthage Jail 

Pawnee Mission and Burnt Village Archeological Site 
Ash Hollow Historic District 
Courthouse and Jailhouse Rocks 
Scotts Bluff National Monument 

Fort Laramie National Historic Site 

Register Cliff 

Split Rock, Twin Peaks 

Parting of the Ways 

Fort Bridger 

Emigration Canyon 



^-i a M7 e trL a k ndmarkS "^ P ' aCeS arS associated -I* the Mormon Pionee, 



140 



APPENDIX D 

Supplemental 
Criteria for Certified Protected Segments 
of the Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail 



Planning criteria are used to evaluate potential corridor segments and are 
supplementary to those in Section 5(b)(11) of the National Trails System 
Act as amended. 

Qualification 

Certified Protected Segments must have at least one facet of trail 
significance relating directly to the 1846-47 Mormon pioneering emigration 
effort. The segment may also have one or more facets relating to 
secondary themes or to recreational use. A part of recreational use must 
be based on historic interpretation and application. 

Availability 

A Certified Protected Segment must be reasonably accessible for public 
use. "Reasonably accessible" is interpreted to mean not only free and 
open to the public at all times, but also may be day use only; accessible 
only through guided tours; subject to payment of a fee; or other similar 
restrictions. 

Size 

The size of a Certified Protected Segment may vary depending on use and 
purpose, but must be of a reasonable area to protect significant 
resources, or to offer an opportunity for interpreting some aspect of the 
Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail, or to accommodate recreational use 
based on historical interpretation and appreciation. 

Location 

A Certified Protected Segment must be reasonably adjacent to the Mormon 
Pioneer National Historic Trail published in the Federal Register . 

Design and Use 

Certified Protected Segments or Sites must be developed according to 
accepted design and construction standards commensurate to the types of 
use the Trail will receive. Visitor safety will be a primary consideration 
in all such designs and use programs. The area must be reasonably 
accessible to handicapped visitors. 

Administration 

Managing public agency or private entity must assure that the segment 
will be available for public use upon certification for a period of 10 years 
in the case of public agencies and for 5 years in the case of private 
interests. Such assurance should be supported by documents, legal 
citations, or references. 

141 



Management 

Administering entity must identify how the Certified Protected Segment's 
resources will be preserved, protected and made available for public use. 
This can be done in a management plan or statement specifying such items 
as zoning or classifications of use, preserving historic trail ruts or 
structures, fire protection, maintenance, rules and regulations, inter- 
pretive program, existing and proposed facilities, use fees, and similar 
matters. Other permitted uses, such as motor vehicle use, livestock 
grazing, and similar uses should be addressed in relation to protection of 
resources and visitor safety. 

Connecting Side Trails 

Side trails must be developed and administered as National Recreation 
Trail. 



142 



APPENDIX E 

SAMPLE APPLICATION FORMAT FOR 
MORMON PIONEER NATIONAL HISTORIC TRAIL 
PROTECTED SEGMENT CERTIFICATION 



I . Name of Segment 

I I . Agency or Organization or Individual responsible for: 

1. Submitting Application 2. Operation and Maintenance 

III. Location 

Attach maps of the approximate scale showing the general 
location of the proposed segment and its accessibility to public use. 

IV. Description 

1. Indicate the size of the potential segment and a map of its 
general configuration. 

2. Describe the segment and related features, including such 
items as vegetation, terrain, recreation facilities, significant natural and 
cultural features, environmental intrusions, etc. 

3. Describe ownership of the segment. If under lease, give 
tenure and any special terms of the lease. Include a copy of supporting 
documents, citations or references. In the case of private lands, 
agreements for public access must be documented. (Note: The segment 
must be in existence and available to the public for use at least 10 
consecutive years after designation in the case of public lands, and for 5 
years in the case of private lands.) 

4. Briefly describe design and construction standards utilized 
for the segment (e.g., width of right-of-way, tread or road width and 
surface, safety features, structures and facililities, etc.). 

V. Use 

Discuss the types of existing or proposed uses within the 
segment. At least part of recreational use must be based on historical 
interpretation and appreciation. If appropriate, discuss incompatible use 
and possible changes in use. 

VI . Administration and Management 

1. Indicate if a user fee is charged and, if so, state the 
amount of the fee. 

2. Describe the management plan for the segment (e.g., land 
use classification or zoning, maintenance, fire protection, police 
surveillance, rules and regulations, etc. 

3. Discuss major existing or potential impacts or problems, 
including probable solutions. 

VII. Other 

Include a sampling of glossy photographs, preferably 8" x 10" 
depicting the segment and trail use. 



143 



VIM. Affirmation 

Include the following: 

I hereby affirm that: (1) I am duly authorized to represent 
the Agency or organization noted below; (2) the segment is in existence 
and will be available for public use regardless of race, color, or creed 
for at least 10 consecutive years in the case of public lands, and 5 years 
in the case of private lands, beyond the date that it is certified as a 
protected segment of the Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail; (3) that 
the lands will be administered without expense to the United States; and 
(4) that the segment will be identified by a sign erected similar to that 
shown on the attached drawing, such sign to be initially supplied by the 
secretary of the Interior. 

Applicant (Agency) Date 

by 

Title 
Address 



IX. Certification 

On behalf of the Secretary of the Interior, I certify that the 
lands described in the above application (1) meet the criteria for national 
historic trails as given in section 5(b)(11) of the National Trails System 
Act, as amended; (2) meet the supplemental criteria prescribed in the 
Comprehensive Plan for the Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail; and 
(3) will be administered without expense to the United States. The lands 
so described are hereby certified as a protected segment of the Mormon 
Pioneer National Historic Trail. 

By 

Signature Title 



Date 



144 



APPENDIX F 
Suggested State Management Plan - General Outline 

PURPOSE OF PLAN 

I. INTRODUCTION 

A. Overview of Trail Segment 

1. General route description 

2. Facilities 

3. Significant scenic, natural, cultural, and historic resources 

4. Land ownership (Federal, State, Private) 

B. The Maintaining Plan 

1. Goals and history 

2. Organization and administration 

3. Activities 

C. Working Relationships and Cooperative Agreements with Other 
Groups 

1. Government (BLM, USFS, NPS, F&WS, COE, Local) 

2. Other maintaining groups 

II. MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 

A. The Designated Auto Route 

1. Primary Routes routing and marking 

2. Secondary Side Trails routing and marking 

B. The Original Pioneer Trail 

1 . Marking 

2. Clearing 

3. Treadway 

4. Overnight use facilities 

5. Water sources 

6. Relocations 

7. Side Trails 

8. Others (bridges, registers, trailheads, etc.) 

C. Relationships 

1. Other maintaining organizations 

2. Mormon Pioneer Advisory Council 

3. Governmental partners (USFS, BLM, NPS, F&WS, 
State, Local) 

4. Abutting landowners 



145 



D. Resource Protection 

1. Fire prevention and suppression 

2. Law enforcement 

3. Search and rescue 

4. Information and education 

5. Segment monitoring 

6. Consideration of Environmental Impacts 

D. Other Uses 

1. Trail users 

a. compatible 

b. incompatible 

III. REVIEW AND REVISION OF PLAN 

IV. COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS 

V. MAPS 



146 



APPENDIX G 
BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Becker, Robert H. Thomas Christy's Road Across the Plains. Old West 
Publishing Company, Denver, Colorado, 1969. 

Brown, Elinor L. The Historical Marker Program in Nebraska. Nebraska 
State Historical Society, 1973. 

Carter, Kate B. The Mormons—Their Westward Trek. Salt Lake City: 
Utah Printing Company, 1974. 

Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. Exploring the Pioneer 
Trail. Salt Lake City: Desert News Press, 1972. 

Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. The Great 

Nineteenth-Century Mormon Migration: The Pioneer Trail Today. 
Salt Lake City: Ensign Publication, January 1980. 

Clayton, W. William Clayton's Journal. Salt Lake City: Desert News 
Press, 1921. 

Clayton, W. The Latter-Day Saints' Emigrants' Guide. St. Louis, 
Missouri, 1848. 

Council on Environmental Quality. Off-Road Vehicles on Public Land. 
Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1979. 

Franzwa, Gregory M. The Oregon Trail Revisited. Patrice Press Inc., 
1972. 

Hansen, Klaus J. Quest for Empire. University of Nebraska Press, 
Lincoln, Nebraska, 1970. 

Haines, Aubrey L. Historic Resource Study — Historic Sites Along the 
Oregon Trail. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park 
Service, June 1973. 

The State Historical Society of Iowa: Harvey, the Reverend R.E. The 
Mormon Trek Across Iowa Territory. Annals of Iowa, 3rd Series, 
July 1946, pp. 36-60. The Mormon Trail of 1846. The Palimpsest, 
September 1966, pp. 353-367. 

Kimball, Stanley B. The Mormon Trail, Nebraska-Wyoming (unpublished) 
July 1974. 

Kimball, Stanley B. Discovering Mormon Trails. Salt Lake City: Desert 
Book Company, 1979. 

Mattes, Merrill J. The Great Platte River Road. Nebraska State 
Historical Society, 1969. 



147 



Morgan, Dale L. The Great Salt Lake. University of New Mexico Press, 
Albequerque, New Mexico, 1973. 

Nebraska Travel and Recreation Interagency Council. Nebraska Travel 
Industry Development Plan. Salt Lake City: Concept Design 
Associates, October 1975. 

Stegner, Wallace. The Gathering of Zion--The Story of the Mormon Trail. 
New York, Toronto, London: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1971. 

Utah Division of Parks and Recreation. Master Plan Supplement—Pioneer 
Village, Pioneer Trail State Park Master Plan. State of Utah, 
November 1973. 

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. The Pacific Crest Trail. 
Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1971. 

U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. Managing 
the Public Rangelands (Draft), Washington: November, 1979. 

U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. Historic 
Trails Management Plan — Rock Springs District (unpublished), 1979. 

U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Outdoor Recreation. The 
Continental Divide Trail — Final Environmental Statement, May 1977. 

U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Outdoor Recreation. The 
Lewis and Clark Trail — Final Environmental Statement, December 
1976. 

U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Outdoor Recreation. The 
Mormon Trail (unpublished reconnaissance report), January 1972. 

U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Outdoor Recreation. The 
Oregon Trail, A Potential Addition to the National Trails System, 
April 1977. 

U.S. Department of the Interior, Heritage Conservation and Recreation 
Service and National Park Service. The Mormon Trail— A Study 
Report, June 1978. 

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. Fort Laramie 
Park History, 1834-1977, September 1980. 

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. National Historic 
Landmarks. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1976. 



148 



APPENDIX H 
MAP REFERENCES 



Illinois/Iowa 
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Western Iowa 
Eastern Nebraska 
East Central Nebraska 
Central Nebraska 
West Central Nebraska 
Western Nebraska 
Eastern Wyoming 
East Central Wyoming 
West Central Wyoming 
Western Wyoming 
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3 

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